战斗或逃跑反应

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貓狗對峙的反應

战斗或逃跑反应英文Fight-or-flight response),心理学,生理学名词,为1929年美国生理学家懷特·坎農英语Walter Bradford CannonWalter Cannon)所创建[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8],其发现動物机体面對威脅時通常會激起神经腺体的反应產生应激壓力),使躯体做好防御、挣扎或者逃跑的准备。後來,這一反應被認為是脊椎動物以及其他生物應激反應的最初階段。不同的荷爾蒙雌激素睾酮皮質醇都會影響人們如何對壓力作反應。[9]

概述[编辑]

这种应激反应的中心位于丘脑下部,包括了许多种情绪反应。丘脑下部有时被视作应激中心,因为其在紧急事件中具备双重功能:对于自主神经系统(ANS)的控制,以及对垂体腺的控制[10]

两性在“战斗或逃跑反应”中表现有差异:较之女性,男性更倾向于“战斗”反应;较之男性,女性更倾向于“逃跑”反应,或寻求他人帮助,或化解当前危险——“结盟与友好”。尤其是身为母亲的女性,面临紧张情况时,会尤其倾向于保护自己的子女并寻求他人帮助。[11]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ harvardsquarelibrary: W. B. Cannon Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage: An Account of Recent Researches into the Function of Emotional Excitement, Appleton, New York, 1915 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2010-03-16.
  2. ^ Cannon, Walter. Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear, and rage. New York: Appleton. 1929. 
  3. ^ Bracha, H.S. et. al. (2004). Does "Fight or Flight" Need Updating? in Psychosomatics, 45:448-449, October 2004.[永久失效連結]
  4. ^ Some references say he first described the response in 1914 in The American Journal of Physiology. Others in the 1915 edition of Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage. Other sources say that he first used the term in 1929 or in 1932 edition of the same book. The issue needs further research.
  5. ^ Walter Bradford Cannon. Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear, and rage. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 1929. 
  6. ^ H.S.Bracha; Ralston, TC; Matsukawa, JM; Williams, AE; Bracha, AS. Does "Fight or Flight" Need Updating?. Psychosomatics. 2004, 45 (5): 448–9 [2010-10-04]. PMID 15345792. doi:10.1176/appi.psy.45.5.448. Walter Cannon's original formulation of the term for the human response to threat, 'fight or flight,' was coined exactly 75 years ago, in 1929. [永久失效連結]
  7. ^ Shelley Elizabeth Taylor, LC Klein, BP Lewis. Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: Tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight (PDF). Psychological Review. [2010-10-04]. First described by Walter Cannon in 1932, the fight-or-flight response is characterized physiologically by sympathetic nervous system activation that innervates the adrenal medulla, producing a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially ... 
  8. ^ Walter Bradford Cannon. Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage: An Account of Recent Researches into the Function of Emotional Excitement. Appleton-Century-Crofts. 1915. 
  9. ^ Adrenaline, Cortisol, Norepinephrine: The Three Major Stress Hormones, Explained. Hufflington Post. April 19, 2014 [16 August 2014]. 
  10. ^ 《心理学与生活》(Psychology and life),Richard Gerrig / Philip Zimbardo,ISBN 9787115111302,人民邮电出版社,2003-10,P363
  11. ^ Shelley Elizabeth Taylor, LC Klein, BP Lewis. "Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: Tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight". Psychological Review. Retrieved 2010-10-04. "First described by Walter Cannon in 1932, the fight-or-flight response is characterized physiologically by sympathetic nervous system activation that innervates the adrenal medulla, producing a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially ..."