戴维奖章

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第一枚戴维奖章颁发给了罗伯特·威廉·本生(左)和古斯塔夫·基尔霍夫(右),以表彰他们对光谱分析的发现和研究。

戴维奖章英语:Davy Medal)也叫戴维奖,是英国皇家学会设立的一个奖项,以表彰那些在任一化学分支下有卓越的、重要的新发现的人[1][2]。戴维奖章是以无机化学之父汉弗里·戴维的名字命名的,与奖章一同颁发的还有1000英镑奖金。1877年,罗伯特·威廉·本生古斯塔夫·基尔霍夫因对光谱分析有重要发现和研究而获得第一枚奖章。与皇家学会设立的其他奖章(如休斯奖)不同的是,戴维奖章每年颁发一次,而且从一开始就未间断过。[1]

戴维奖章除了在第一届颁给了两个人外,在1882年也同时颁给了德米特里·伊万诺维奇·门捷列夫尤利乌斯·洛塔尔·迈耶尔(原子量的周期关系的发现),还有1883年马塞兰·贝特洛尤利乌斯·汤姆森(热化学)、1893年雅各布斯·亨里克斯·范托夫约瑟夫·阿希勒·勒·拜尔(提出碳原子不对称理论及其用于解释旋光碳原子化合物的构造) 、1903年皮埃尔·居里玛丽·居里(对的研究)、1968年约翰·康福思乔治·约瑟夫·波普雅克(共同阐明聚类异戊二烯和类固醇的生物合成路线)。[3][4]

获奖者列表[编辑]

来源:皇家学会

年份 获奖者 获奖理由
1877年 罗伯特·威廉·本生
古斯塔夫·基尔霍夫
"For their researches & discoveries in spectrum analysis"
对光谱分析的发现和研究
[5]
1878年 路易·保罗·卡耶泰
拉乌尔·皮克泰
"For their researches, conducted independently, but contemporaneously, on the condensation of the so-called permanent gases"
同时但独立进行对所谓的永久气体的冷凝的研究
[6]
1879年 保罗·埃米尔·勒科克·德布瓦博德兰 "For his discovery of gallium"
发现元素
[7]
1880年 查尔斯·弗里德尔 "For his researches on the organic compounds of silicon, and other investigations"
有机硅化合物的研究和其他调查研究
[8]
1881年 阿道夫·冯·拜尔 "For his synthesis of indigo"
靛蓝的合成
[9]
1882年 德米特里·伊万诺维奇·门捷列夫
尤利乌斯·洛塔尔·迈耶尔
"For their discovery of the periodic relations of the atomic weights"
发现原子量的周期关系
[10]
1883年 马塞兰·贝特洛
尤利乌斯·汤姆森
"For their researches in thermo-chemistry"
热化学的研究
[11]
1884年 阿道夫·威廉·赫尔曼·科尔贝 "For his researches in the isomerism of alcohols"
对醇的同分异构现象的研究
[12]
1885年 让·斯塔斯 "For his researches on the atomic weights"
对原子量的研究
[13]
1886年 让-夏尔·加利萨·德马里尼亚 "For his researches on atomic weights"
对原子量的研究
[14]
1887年 约翰·亚历山大·雷纳·纽兰兹 "For his discovery of the periodic law of the chemical elements"
化学元素周期律的发现
[15][16]
1888年 威廉·克鲁克斯爵士 "For his investigations on the behaviour of substances under the influences of the electric discharge in a high vacuum"
对在高真空放电条件下物质反应的调查研究
[17]
1889年 威廉·亨利·珀金爵士 "For his researches on magnetic rotation in relation to chemical constitution"
和化学结构有关的磁致旋光研究
[18]
1890年 赫尔曼·埃米尔·费歇尔 "For his discoveries in organic chemistry and especially for his researches on the carbo-hydrates"
有机化学中的发现,特别是对碳水化合物的研究
[19]
1891年 维克托·梅耶 "For his researches on the determination of vapour densities at high temperatures"
对高温下蒸气密度测定的研究
[15]
1892年 弗朗索瓦-马利·拉乌尔 "For his researches on the freezing points of solutions, and on the vapour pressures of solutions"
对溶液凝固点和蒸气压的研究
[20]
1893年 雅各布斯·亨里克斯·范托夫
约瑟夫·阿希勒·勒·拜尔
"In recognition of their introduction of the theory of asymmetric carbon, and its use in explaining the constitution of optically active carbon compounds"
提出碳原子不对称理论及其用于解释旋光碳原子化合物的构造
[21]
1894年 佩尔·提奥多·克勒夫 "For his researches on the chemistry of the rare earths"
对稀土元素的化学性质的研究
[22]
1895年 威廉·拉姆齐爵士 "For his share in the discovery of argon, and for his discoveries regarding gaseous constituents of terrestrial minerals"
发现氩元素,以及发现地矿中几种气体成分
[23]
1896年 亨利·莫瓦桑 "For the isolation of fluorine, and the use of the electric furnace in the preparation of refractory metals and their compounds"
氟气分离以及通过使用电熔炉配备难熔金属元素及其化合物
[24]
1897年 约翰·贺尔·格莱斯顿 "For his numerous contributions to chemical science, and especially for his important work in the application of optical methods to chemistry"
对化学为数众多的贡献,特别是应用了化学中的光学方法而取得的重大成果
[25]
1898年 约翰尼斯·威利森努斯 "For his contributions to organic chemistry especially in the domain of stereochemical isomerism"
对有机化学的贡献,特别是在立体异构领域内的贡献
[26]
1899年 爱华德·顺克 "For his researches on madder, indigo, and chlorophyll"
对人造茜草染料、靛蓝染料和叶绿素(色素)的研究
[27]
1900年 威尔赫尔姆·克尔纳 "For his brilliant investigations on the position theory of the aromatic compounds"
对芳香族化合物结构理论的出色调查研究
[28]
1901年 乔治·唐宁·利文 "For his contributions to spectroscopy"
对光谱学的贡献
[29]
1902年 斯凡特·奥古斯特·阿伦尼乌斯 "For the application of the theory of dissociation to the explanation of chemical change"
对解释化学变化的解离理论的应用
[30]
1903年 皮埃尔·居里
玛丽·居里
"For their researches on radium"
的研究
[31]
1904年 小威廉·珀金 "For his notable discoveries in organic chemistry"
在有机化学中的杰出发现
[18]
1905年 阿尔贝特·拉登堡 "For his researches in organic chemistry, especially in connection with the synthesis of natural alkaloids"
在有机化学中的研究,特别是与天然生物碱合成相关的研究
[32]
1906年 威廉·鲁道夫·菲蒂希 "For his investigations in chemistry especially his work on lactones and acids"
化学领域中的调查研究,特别是对内酯和酸性物质的调查研究
[33]
1907年 愛德華·莫立 "On the ground of his contributions to physics and chemistry, and especially for his determinations of the relative atomic weights of hydrogen & oxygen"
对物理学和化学的贡献,特别是对氢和氧的相对原子质量的测定
[34]
1908年 威廉·奧古斯都·提爾頓 "On the ground of his discoveries in chemistry, especially on the terpenes and on atomic heats"
在化学领域内的多项发现,特别是萜烯原子热的发现
[35]
1909年 詹姆斯·杜瓦 "On the ground of his researches at low temperatures"
低温领域的研究
[36]
1910年 西奥多·威廉·理查兹 "On the ground of his researches on the detrmination of atomic weights"
对原子量的测定的研究
[37]
1911年 亨利·爱德华·阿姆斯特朗 "On the ground of his researches in organic and general chemistry"
对有机化学和基础化学的研究
[18]
1912年 奥托·瓦拉赫 "On the ground of his researches on the chemistry of the essential oils, and the cyclo-olefines"
精油和环烯烃的化学性质的研究
[38]
1913年 拉斐尔·梅尔多拉 "On the ground of work in synthetic chemistry"
对合成化学的研究
[18]
1914年 威廉·杰克逊·蒲柏 "On the ground of his important contributions to structural & organic chemistry"
对结构化学和有机化学的重大贡献
[39]
1915年 保罗·萨巴捷 "For his researches on contact action, and the application of finely divided metals as catalytic agents"
对接触作用的研究,以及使用金属粉末作为催化剂
[40]
1916年 亨利·路易·勒夏特列 "On the ground of his eminence as a chemist"
作为一个卓越的化学家
[41]
1917年 阿尔宾·哈勒 "On the ground of his important researches in the domain of organic chemistry"
在有机化学领域内的重要研究成果
[42]
1918年 弗雷德里克·基平 "On the ground of his studies in the camphor group and among the organic derivatives of nitrogen and silicon"
对樟脑基团的研究,以及对氮和硅的有机衍生物的研究
[43]
1919年 珀西·法拉第·弗兰克兰 "On the ground of his distinguished work in chemistry, especially that on optical activity, and on fermentation"
在化学的杰出研究,特别是在旋光性和发酵作用领域内的研究
[44]
1920年 查尔斯·海科克 "On the ground of his work in physical chemistry and more especially on the composition & constitution of alloys"
在物理化学领域内的研究,特别是对合金的成分和结构的研究
[45][46]
1921年 菲利普·盖耶 "For his researches in physical chemistry"
在物理化学上的研究
[47]
1922年 乔斯林·菲尔德·索普 "For his researches in synthetic organic chemistry"
在有机合成化学的研究
[48]
1923年 赫伯特·布里尔顿·贝克 "For his researches on the complete drying of gases and liquids"
对气体和液体完全干燥的研究
[49]
1924年 亚瑟·乔治·珀金 "For his researches on the structure of natural colouring matters"
对天然染料的结构的研究
[18]
1925年 詹姆斯·欧文 "For his work on the constitution of the sugars"
对糖构造的研究
[50]
1926年 詹姆斯·沃克 "For his work on the theory of ionisation"
对电离理论的研究
[51]
1927年 亚瑟·阿摩司·诺伊斯 "For his work in physical chemistry, especially on the subject of electrolytic solutions"
对物理化学的研究,特别是涉及电解液的研究
[52]
1928年 弗雷德里克·乔治·道南 "For his contributions to physical chemistry and particularly for his theory of membrane equilibrium"
对物理化学的贡献,特别是离子交换膜理论(道南平衡理论)
[53]
1929年 吉爾伯特·路易斯 "For his contributions to classical thermodynamics and the theory of valency"
对经典热力学和化合价理论的贡献
[54]
1930年 羅伯特·魯賓遜 "For his work on the constitution and synthesis of natural products; also for his contributions to the theory of organic reactions"
对天然产物的构造和合成的研究,以及对有机反应理论的贡献
[55]
1931年 亚瑟·拉普沃 "For his researches in organic chemistry, particularly those connected with tautomerism and the mechanism of organic reactions"
对有机化学的研究,特别是跟互变异构和有机反应历程相关的研究
[56]
1932年 里夏德·维尔施泰特 "For his distinguished researches in organic chemistry"
在有机化学中卓越的研究成果
[57]
1933年 威廉·霍布森·米尔斯 "For his researches in organic chemistry, and for his work on the synthesis and properties of the cyanine dyes, and more especially for his investigation of novel types of asymmetric molecules"
对有机化学、菁染料的性质和合成方法的研究,尤其是对新型不对称分子的调查研究
[58]
1934年 沃尔特·诺曼·霍沃思 "For his researches on the molecular structure of carbohydrates"
对碳水化合物分子结构的研究
[59]
1935年 阿瑟·哈登 "For his distinguished work in biochemistry and especially for his fundamental discoveries in the chemistry of alcoholic fermentation"
在生物化学领域内的卓越研究成果,特别是在醇发酵作用中至关重要的发现
[60]
1936年 威廉·亚瑟·伯纳 "For his pioneer work on contact catalysis and his researches on the mechanism of combustion of hydrocarbons and on the nature of flames and on gaseous explosions"
在接触催化的开拓性研究,和对碳氢化合物燃烧历程、火焰的性质、气体爆炸的研究
[61]
1937年 汉斯·费歇尔 "In recognition of his work on the chemistry of the porphyrins, particularly his determination of their detailed structure by degradation and his syntheses of porphyrins of biological importance"
对卟啉的化学性质的研究,特别是通过降解测定其详细结构,以及合成对生物具重要意义的卟啉
[62]
1938年 乔治·巴杰 "In recognition of his distinguished researches on alkaloids and other natural products"
对生物碱和其他天然产物的研究
[63]
1939年 詹姆斯·威廉·麦克贝恩 "For having opened up the study of colloidal electrolytes, provided the elements of the guiding theory, and developed the subject"
开辟对胶体电解质的研究,为其指导思想提出纲要并发展了这门学科
[64]
1940年 哈羅德·尤里 "For his isolation of deuterium, the heavy hydrogen isotope, and for his work on this and other isotopes in following the detailed course of chemical reactions"
对氢的同位素氘的分离,以及在接着的详细化学反应路线中对氘和其他同位素的研究
[65]
1941年 亨利·德赖斯代尔·戴金 "For his work as a pioneer in biochemical research and especially because of his fundamental contributions to the study of intermediate metabolism"
是生物化学研究的开拓者,更因为他对中间代谢研究作出的至关重要的贡献
[66]
1942年 西里尔·欣谢尔伍德爵士 "In recognition of his distinguished work on the mechanism of chemical reactions"
对化学反应历程的研究
[67]
1943年 伊恩·海尔布伦 "In recognition of his many notable contributions to organic chemistry, especially to the chemistry of natural products of physiological importance"
为有机化学作出多次卓越贡献,特别是为研究多种对生理具重要意义的天然产物的化学性质而作出的贡献
[68]
1944年 罗伯特·罗伯逊 "In recognition of his researches on explosives, analytical methods, the internal structure of diamond, and infra-red absorption spectra"
对炸药、分析法、钻石内部结构和红外线吸收光谱的研究
[69]
1945年 罗杰·亚当斯 "In recognition of his extensive researches in the field of organic chemistry and of his recent work in the alkaloid field"
在有机化学领域内广泛的研究,以及最近在生物碱领域内的研究成果
[70]
1946年 克里斯托夫·英果尔德 "In recognition of his distinguished work in applying physical methods to problems in organic chemistry"
通过使用物理方法解决有机化学问题
[71]
1947年 萊納斯·鮑林 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the theory of valency and for theor application to systems of biological importance"
在化合价理论中卓越的贡献,以及该理论在对生物具重要意义的生态系统中的应用
[72]
1948年 埃德蒙·赫斯特 "In recognition of his outstanding work in the determination of the structure of sugars, starches, plant gums and especially of vitamin C"
对糖、淀粉、植物胶和(特别是)维生素C的结构的测定
[73]
1949年 亚历山大·罗伯图斯·托德 "For his structural synthetic studies and achievements in organic and bio-chemistry, with special reference to vitamins B1 and E and the naturally occurring nucleosides"
对结构合成的研究和在有机化学和生物化学领域内的成就,特别是涉及到维生素B1、维生素E和天然存在的核苷的研究
[74]
1950年 约翰·西蒙森 "For his distinguished researches on the constitution of natural products, especially the plant hydro-carbons and their derivatives"
对天然产物的构造的研究,特别是对植物的碳氢化合物及其衍生物的研究
[75]
1951年 艾瑞克·里迪尔 "For his distinguished contributions to the subject of surface chemistry"
表面化学学科的贡献
[76]
1952年 亚历山大·罗伯逊 "In recognition of his researches into the chemistry of natural products, particularly the wide range of glycosides, bitter principles and colouring matters containing heterocyclic oxygen atoms"
对天然产物的化学性质的研究,特别是对多种苷、苦味素和含氧原子杂环着色剂的研究
[77]
1953年 约翰·伦纳德-琼斯 "For his distinguished work on the applications of quantum mechanics to the theory of valency and to the analysis of the intimate structure of decimal compounds"
将量子力学应用到化合价理论和化合物的内部结构的研究中
[78]
1954年 詹姆斯·威尔弗雷德·库克 "For his distinguished fundamental investigations in organic chemistry"
在有机化学领域内进行的具有重要意义的调查研究
[79]
1955年 哈利·渥克·梅尔维尔 "In recognition of his distinguished work in physical chemistry and in polymer reactions"
对物理化学和聚合物化学反应的研究
[80]
1956年 罗伯特·道温斯·霍沃思 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the chemistry of natural products particularly those containing heterocyclic systems"
对多种天然产物的化学性质的贡献,特别是含杂环的化合物
[81]
1957年 凯瑟琳·朗斯代尔英语Kathleen Lonsdale "In recognition of her distinguished studies in the structure and growth of crystals"
对晶体结构和晶体生长的研究
[82][83][84][85]
1958年 罗纳德·乔治·雷伊福特·诺里什 "In recognition of his distinguished work in chemical kinetics, especially in photochemistry"
对化学动力学的研究,特别是对光化学的研究
[86]
1959年 罗伯特·伯恩斯·伍德沃德 "In recognition of his distinguished researches in organic chemistry and particularly for his contributions to the structure and synthesis of natural products"
对有机化学的研究,特别是对天然产物的结构和合成的贡献
[87]
1960年 约翰·蒙蒂思·罗伯逊 "In recognition of his distinguished pioneering work on the analysis of crystal structure, especially of organic compounds"
对晶体结构的分析,特别是对有机化合物的研究
[88]
1961年 德里克·巴顿 "In recognition of his distinguished researches in organic chemistry, particularly on the structure and stereochemistry of natural products of the terpene and steroid series; and the analysis of the conformation of cyclic structures"
在有机化学中卓越的研究,特别是萜烯和类固醇类天然产物的结构和立体化学的研究,以及对环状结构的构造分析
[89]
1962年 哈利·朱利叶斯·埃米勒斯 "In recognition of his distinguished researches in inorganic chemistry and the discovery and examination of a wide range of new compounds"
在无机化学中卓越的研究,以及发现和研究多种新型化合物
[90]
1963年 埃德蒙·约翰·鲍恩 "In recognition of his distinguished work on the elucidation of photochemical reactions, and for his study of fluorescence and phosphorescence in relation to the molecular processes concerned"
对光化学反应的阐明,以及对涉及相关分子运动过程的发荧光和发磷光的研究
[91]
1964年 梅尔文·卡尔文 "In recognition of his pioneering work in chemistry and biology, particularly his elucidation of the photosynthetic pathway for the incorporation of carbon dioxide by plants"
在化学和生物学中的开创性研究,特别是为植物吸收二氧化碳这一事实阐明光合作用反应路线
[92]
1965年 哈罗德·沃里斯·汤普森 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to infra-red spectroscopy and its application to chemical problems"
对红外光谱学的贡献及其在化学问题上的应用
[93]
1966年 尤尔特·琼斯 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to synthetic organic chemistry and to the elucidation of the structures of natural products"
对有机合成化学的贡献,以及对天然产物结构的阐明
[94]
1967年 弗拉迪米尔·普雷洛格 "In recognition of his distinguished work in the development of stereochemical concepts and on the structure of alkaloids and antibiotics"
为立体化学理论的发展以及对生物碱和抗生素结构的研究作出努力
[95]
1968年 约翰·康福思
乔治·约瑟夫·波普雅克
"In recognition of their distinguished joint work on the elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway to polyisoprenoids and steroids"
共同阐明聚类异戊二烯和类固醇的生物合成路线
[96]
1969年 弗雷德里克·丹顿 "In recognition of his distinguished work on the mechanisms of chemical reactions"
对化学反应历程的研究
[97]
1970年 查尔斯·库尔森 "In recognition of his distinguished work in theoretical chemistry"
对理论化学的研究
[98]
1971年 乔治·波特 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to our understanding of chemical reactions"
为人们更好理解化学反应作出贡献
[99]
1972年 亚瑟·约翰·伯奇 "In recognition of his distinguished biosynthetic studies of organic natural products and his development of new reagents for reduction processes"
对有机天然产物的生物合成的研究,以及研制能在还原反应中用到的新型试剂
[100]
1973年 约翰·斯图尔特·安德森 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to chemistry especially on the structural investigation of imperfect surfaces and non-stoichiometric materials"
在化学中卓越的贡献,特别是为非理想表面和非化学计量化合物的结构进行调查研究而作出的贡献
[101]
1974年 詹姆斯·拜迪雷 "In recognition of his distinguished researches on coenzyme A and studies of the constituents of bacterial cell walls"
辅酶A的研究,以及对细菌细胞壁组分的研究
[102]
1975年 西奥多·莫里斯·萨格登 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to physical chemistry including particularly the reactions occurring in flames"
对物理化学的贡献,包括对在火焰中产生的化学反应的研究
[103]
1976年 雷克斯·理查兹 "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and its application to chemical and biological problems"
对核磁共振光谱及其在化学和生物学问题上的应用作出的出色贡献
[104]
1977年 艾伦·拉什顿·巴特斯比 "In recognition of his outstanding and internationally recognized contributions to biosynthesis – his meticulous and logical unravelling of the complex pathways by which alkaloids and porphyrins are elaborated in vivo"
在生物合成中卓越的且得到国际认可的贡献——他一丝不苟、遵循逻辑地阐明生物碱和卟啉在体内变成复杂有机物的路线
[105]
1978年 阿尔伯特·艾申莫瑟 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to modern synthetic organic chemistry, well illustrated by his impressive total synthesis of vitamin B12"
在现代有机合成化学中卓越的贡献,他令人印象深刻的对维生素B12的全合成是最好的说明
[106]
1979年 约瑟夫·查特 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to transition metal chemistry and the understanding of catalysis involving ligating molecules such as olefins or dinitrogen"
在过渡金属化学中卓越的贡献,以及对有连接分子(如烯烃、四氧化二氮)参与的催化过程的了解
[107]
1980年 艾伦·伍德沃思·约翰逊 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the chemistry of natural products including vitamin B12 porphyrins, plant germination factors and insect hormones and pheromones"
对天然产物的化学性质作出的贡献,包括对维生素B12、植物发芽素、昆虫激素和信息素的贡献
[108]
1981年 拉尔夫·亚历山大·拉斐尔 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to organic synthesis and in particular his ingenious applications of acetylenic intermediates"
在有机合成中卓越的贡献,特别是对乙炔中间体的具有独创性应用
[109]
1982年 迈克尔·詹姆斯·斯图尔特·杜瓦 "In recognition of his distinguished studies of the mechanisms of a wide range of chemical reactions based on semi-empirical wave mechanical calculations"
对多种基于半经验的波动力学计算的化学反应的历程的研究
[110]
1983年 杜伊利奥·阿里戈尼 "In recognition of his distinguished creativity in the fields of biosynthesis and bioorganic stereochemistry"
在生物合成和有机立体化学领域内的创造力
[111]
1984年 山姆·爱德华兹 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the theoretical basis of thermodynamic aspects of polymer chemistry"
对高分子化学的热力学理论基础的贡献
[112]
1985年 杰克·路易斯 "For his outstanding work on the structure and reactivity of metal cluster compounds, including pioneering work on carbido and hydrido derivatives, and pi-donor organic molecules"
对金属团簇化合物结构和反应能力的研究,包括对碳化物和氢化物的衍生物、含pi给电子基团的有机分子的开拓性研究
[113]
1986年 亚历山大·乔治·安格斯通
1987年 亚历克·杰弗里斯
1988年 约翰·波普
1989年 弗朗西斯·戈登·艾伯特·斯通
1990年 基斯·厄舍伍德·英戈尔德
1991年 杰里米·兰德尔·诺尔斯
1992年 艾伦·卡林顿
1993年 杰克·鲍德温
1994年 约翰·托马斯
1995年 马尔科姆·格林
1996年 杰弗里·威尔金森
1997年 让-马里·莱恩
1998年 艾伦·费什特
1999年 马尔科姆·哈罗德·奇肖姆
2000年 史蒂文·维克托·莱伊
2001年 阿拉斯泰尔·伊恩·斯科特
2002年 尼尔·巴特利特
2003年 罗杰·帕森斯
2004年 冈武史
2005年 克里斯·多布森
2006年 马丁·波普
2007年 约翰·西蒙斯
2008年 弗雷泽·斯托达特
2009年 杰里米·桑德斯
2010年 卡罗尔·罗宾逊
2011年 艾哈迈德·泽韦尔
2012年 弗雷泽·阿姆斯特朗
2013年 格雷厄姆·哈欽斯
2014年 克莱尔·格瑞英语Clare Grey

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皇家学会网页:
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