抗血清

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抗血清(Antiserum)是含有多株抗體血清,注到生物體後,可以產生被動免疫英语passive immunity。例如目前已知唯一有效的埃博拉出血热治療法,就是從倖存者中取得抗血清(恢复期血清),再將抗血清輸到其他人體內(但成功率很低)[1]

抗血清常用在診斷病毒学的實驗室中。抗血清若用在人類身上,常當作抗毒素英语antitoxin或是治療蛇毒英语envenomation抗蛇毒血清英语antivenom

運作原理[编辑]

抗血清中的抗體會和抗原或是傳染媒介結合[2]免疫系统會識別和抗體結合的外來物質,觸發更强烈的免疫反應。抗血清多半會用在致病原的強度界於一定程度之間的情形:抗血清可以躲避尚未活化的免疫系統,但只要免疫系統活化,致病原就無法躲避。因此是否有抗體要看一開始的「幸運倖存者」其免疫系統是否有辦法產生抗體,或是看是否有攜帶致病體但不會受其症狀影響的「宿主物種」[3]。後續的抗血清可以從初始的抗血清提供者產生,或是從曾被感染,但之後因為抗血清而治癒的動物器官來產生。像稀釋的蛇毒常常是蛇本身的抗血清,在蛇咬到自己時可以產生被動免疫[4][5]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Mupapa, K; Massamba, M; Kibadi, K; Kuvula, K; Bwaka, A; Kipasa, M; Colebunders, R; Muyembe-Tamfum, JJ. Treatment of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever with Blood Transfusions from Convalescent Patients (suppl 1). The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1999,. 179 Suppl 1 (Volume 179): S18–S23 [6 August 2014]. PMID 9988160. doi:10.1086/514298. 
  2. ^ de Andrade, Fábio Goulart, et al. "The Production And Characterization Of Anti-Bothropic And Anti-Crotalic Igy Antibodies In Laying Hens: A Long Term Experiment." Toxicon 66.(2013): 18-24. Academic Search Complete. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.
  3. ^ Mortimer, Nathan T., et al. "Parasitoid Wasp Venom SERCA Regulates Drosophila Calcium Levels And Inhibits Cellular Immunity." Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America 110.23 (n.d.): 9427-9432. Biological Abstracts 1969 - Present. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.
  4. ^ O'Leary, M.A., K. Maduwage, and G.K. Isbister. "Use Of Immunoturbidimetry To Detect Venom–Antivenom Binding Using Snake Venoms." Journal Of Pharmacological & Toxicological Methods 67.3 (2013): 177-181. Academic Search Complete. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.
  5. ^ Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm, Paul W. Finnegan, and David C. Fritzinger. "Humanized Cobra Venom Factor: Structure, Activity, And Therapeutic Efficacy In Preclinical Disease Models." Molecular Immunology 61.2 (2014): 191-203. Academic Search Complete. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.

外部連結[编辑]