拉姆福德奖章

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拉姆福德伯爵 (本杰明·汤普森爵士),奖项以他的名字命名

拉姆福德奖章英语:Rumford Medal)是一项由英国皇家学会授予的奖项,旨在奖励“对物质的热学或光学性质做出杰出新发现的在欧洲工作的科学家”。该奖由拉姆福德伯爵本杰明·汤普森于1796年捐赠5000美元而始创,于1800年首次颁奖,每两年颁发一次,奖金为1000英镑。 自成立以来,该奖已授予包括拉姆福德伯爵本人在内的101位科学家。在所有获奖人中,英国公民获奖53次,德国17次,法国14次,荷兰7次,瑞典4次,美国3次,意大利2次,澳大利亚匈牙利比利时卢森堡新西兰各1次。

获奖者列表[编辑]

年份
获奖者 国籍
获奖理由 参考
1800 本杰明·汤普森  英國 为他关于光和热的多方面发现 [1]
1802 未颁发
1804 约翰·莱斯利  英國
为他的著作中发表的关于热的实验,题名“对热的本质和热的传播的实验性研究”
1806 未颁发
1808 威廉·默多克  英國 为他的著作中为照明的目的使用来自煤炭的气体
1810 艾蒂安-路易·马吕斯  法国 为反射光的新性质的发现, 出版于Memoires dArcueil的第二卷 [2]
1812 未颁发
1814 威廉·查尔斯·威尔斯英语William Charles Wells  英國 为他关于露水的论文,发表于the course of the preceding (1815) year" [3]
1816 汉弗里·戴维  英國 为他关于燃烧与火焰的论文,出版于Philosophical Transactions的最后一卷 [4]
1818 大卫·布儒斯特  英國 为他关于光的偏振的发现 [5]
1820 未颁发
1822 未颁发
1824 奥古斯丁·菲涅耳  法国 "For his Development of the Undulatory Theory as applied to the Phenomena of Polarized Light, and for his various important discoveries in Physical Optics" [6]
1826 未颁发
1828 未颁发
1830 未颁发
1832 约翰·弗雷德里克·丹尼尔  英國 "For his Paper, entitled, Further Experiments with a new Register Pyrometer, for measuring the expansion of Solids, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1831" [7]
1834 马切多尼奥·梅洛尼英语Macedonio Melloni  義大利 为他关于辐射热的发现 [8]
1836 未颁发
1838 詹姆斯·戴维·福布斯英语James David Forbes  英國 为他关于热的极化的实验,其解释发表于Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh [9]
1840 让-巴蒂斯特·毕奥  法国 为他的关于光的圆偏振的研究 [10]
1842 威廉·福克斯·塔尔博特英语William Fox Talbot  英國 为他对照相术的探索和改进 [11]
1844 未颁发
1846 迈克尔·法拉第  英國 "For his discovery of the optical phenomena developed by the action of magnets and electric currents in certain transparent media, the details of which are published in the nineteenth series of his experimental researches in electricity, inserted in the Philosophical Transactions for 1845 and in the Philosophical Magazine" [12]
1848 亨利·维克托·勒尼奥  法国 "For his experiments to determine the laws and the numerical data which enter into the calculation of steam engines" [13]
1850 弗朗索瓦·阿拉戈  法国 "For his experimental investigations on polarized light, the concluding memoirs on which were communicated to the Academy of Sciences of Paris during the last two years"
1852 乔治·斯托克斯  英國 为他对光的折射率变化的研究
1854 尼尔·阿诺特英语Neil Arnott  英國 "For the successful construction of the smokeless fire grate lately introduced by him, and for other valuable improvements in the application of heat to the warming and ventilation of apartments"
1856 路易·巴斯德  法国 "For his discovery of the nature of racemic acid and its relations to polarized light, and for the researches to which he was led by that discovery"
1858 朱尔·雅曼英语Jules Jamin  法国 为他对光的多方面实验性研究
1860 詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦  英國 为他关于颜色分解的研究和其他光学论文
1862 古斯塔夫·基尔霍夫  德國 "For his researches on the fixed lines of the solar spectrum, and on the inversion of the bright lines in the spectra of artificial light"
1864 约翰·丁达尔  英國 为他关于气体和蒸汽吸收和辐射热量的研究
1866 阿曼德·斐索  法国 "For his optical researches, & especially for his investigations into the effect of heat on the refractive power of transparent bodies"
1868 鲍尔福·斯图亚特英语Balfour Stewart  英國 "For his researches on the qualitative as well as quantitative relation between the emissive and absorptive powers of bodies for heat and light, published originally in [1858 & 1859]"
1870 艾尔弗雷德·德克卢泽英语Alfred Des Cloizeaux  法国 为他对矿物光学的研究
1872 安德斯·埃格斯特朗  瑞典 为他对光谱的研究
1874 约瑟夫·诺曼·洛克耶英语Joseph Norman Lockyer  英國 为他对太阳化学元素的光谱研究
1875 约翰·威廉·德雷珀英语John William Draper  美國 为他对辐射能的研究
1876 朱尔·让森英语Jules Janssen  法国 "For his numerous & important researches in the radiation & absorption of light, carried on chiefly by means of the spectroscope"
1878 阿尔弗雷德·科尔尼英语Alfred Cornu  法国 "For his various optical researches, and especially for his recent redetermination of the velocity of the propagation of light"
1880 威廉·哈金斯  英國 "For his important researches in astronomical spectroscopy, and especially for his determination of the radial component of the proper motions of stars"
1882 威廉·德维弗莱斯·阿伯尼英语William de Wiveleslie Abney  英國 "For his photographic researches and his discovery of the method of photographing the less refrangible part of the spectrum, especially the infra-red region; also for his researches on the absorption of various compound bodies in this part of the spectrum"
1884 Thalen, Tobias RobertusTobias Robertus·Thalen  瑞典 为他的光谱学研究
1886 塞缪尔·兰利  美國 "For his researches on the spectrum by means of the Bolometer"
1888 彼得罗·塔奇尼英语Pietro Tacchini  義大利 "For important and long-continued investigations, which have largely advanced our knowledge of the physics of the Sun"
1890 海因里希·赫兹  德國 为他关于电磁辐射的工作
1892 尼尔斯·克里斯托弗·杜奈尔  瑞典 为他关于恒星的光谱学的研究
1894 詹姆斯·杜瓦  英國 为他关于极低温度物质性质的研究
1896 菲利普·莱纳德
威廉·伦琴
 德國 "For their investigations of the phenomena produced outside a highly exhausted tube through which an electrical discharge is taking place"
1898 奥利弗·洛奇英语Oliver Lodge  英國 "For his researches in radiation and in the relations between matter and ether"
1900 亨利·贝可勒尔  法国 "For his discoveries in radiation proceding [sic] from uranium"
1902 查尔斯·阿尔格农·帕森斯  英國 "For his success in the application of the steam turbine to industrial purposes, and for its recent extension to navigation"
1904 欧内斯特·卢瑟福  新西蘭 "For his researches on radio-activity, particularly for his discovery of the existence and properties of the gaseous emanations from radio-active bodies"
1906 休·朗伯恩·卡伦德英语Hugh Longbourne Callendar  英國 为他关于热的实验性工作
1908 亨德里克·洛伦兹  荷蘭 为他关于光学和电学的研究
1910 海因里希·鲁本斯英语Heinrich Rubens  德國 "On the ground of his researches on radiation, especially of long wave length"
1912 海克·卡末林·昂内斯  荷蘭 为他关于低温的研究
1914 约翰·斯特拉特,第三代瑞利男爵  英國 为他关于热力学和辐射的研究
1916 威廉·亨利·布拉格  英國 为他关于X射线辐射的研究
1918 夏尔·法布里
阿尔弗雷德·佩罗
 法国 为他们对于光学的贡献
1920 罗伯特·斯特拉特英语Robert Strutt  英國 为他关于高真空气体性质的研究
1922 彼得·塞曼  荷蘭 为他对光学的研究
1924 查理士·凡而侬·波伊斯  英國 为他对气体热量计的发明
1926 亚瑟·舒斯特英语Arthur Schuster  英國 "For his services to physical science, especially in the subjects of optics and terrestrial magnetism"
1928 弗里德里希·帕邢  德國 为他对谱的知识的贡献
1930 彼得·德拜  荷蘭 为他关于比热和X射线光谱的工作
1932 弗里茨·哈伯  德國 "For the outstanding importance of his work in physical chemistry, especially in the application of thermodynamics to chemical reactions"
1934 万德·约翰尼斯·德哈斯英语Wander Johannes de Haas  荷蘭 "For his researches on the properties of bodies at low temperatures, and in particular, for his recent work on cooling by the use of adiabatic demagnetisation"
1936 欧内斯特·乔治·科克尔英语Ernest George Coker  英國 "For his researches on the use of polarized light for investigating directly the stresses in transparent models of engineering structures"
1938 罗伯特·伍德 (物理学家)英语Robert Wood American "In recognition of his distinguished work and discoveries in many branches of physical optics"
1940 曼内·西格巴恩  瑞典 "For his pioneer work in high precision X-ray spectroscopy and its applications"
1942 戈登·多布森英语Gordon Dobson  英國 "In recognition of his outstanding work on the physics of the upper air and its application to meteorology"
1944 哈利·里卡多英语Harry Ricardo  英國 "In recognition of his important contributions to research on the internal combustion engine, which have greatly influenced the development of the various types"
1946 艾尔弗雷德·伊格尔顿英语Alfred Egerton  英國 "In recognition of his leading part in the application of modern physical chemistry to many technological problems of pressing importance"
1948 弗朗西斯·西蒙英语Francis Simon  德國 "For his outstanding contributions to the attainment of low temperatures and to the study of the properties of substances at temperatures near the absolute zero" [14]
1950 弗兰克·惠特尔  英國 "For his pioneering contributions to the jet propulsion of aircraft" [15]
1952 弗里茨·泽尔尼克  荷蘭 "In recognition of his outstanding work in the development of phase contrast microscopy" [16]
1954 塞西尔·雷金纳德·伯奇英语Cecil Reginald Burch  英國 "For his distinguished contributions to the technique for the production of high vacua and to the development of the reflecting microscope" [17]
1956 弗兰克·菲利普·鲍登英语Frank Philip Bowden  澳大利亚 "In recognition of his distinguished work on the nature of friction" [18]
1958 托马斯·拉尔夫·默顿英语Thomas Ralph Merton  英國 "In recognition of his distinguished researches in spectroscopy and optics" [19]
1960 艾尔弗雷德·戈登·盖登英语Alfred Gordon Gaydon  英國 "In recognition of his distinguished work in the field of molecular spectroscopy and particularly its application to the study of flame phenomena"
1962 杜德利·莫里斯·纽伊特英语Dudley Maurice Newitt  英國 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to chemical engineering" [20]
1964 亨德里克·范德胡斯特  荷蘭 "In recognition of his distinguished work on the scattering processes in the interplanetary medium and his prediction of the 21 cm spectral line from interstellar neutral hydrogen"
1966 威廉·朋奈英语William Penney  英國 "In recognition of his distingsuihed [sic] and paramount personal contribution to the establishment of economic nuclear energy in Great Britain" [21]
1968 加博尔·德奈什  匈牙利 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to optics, especially by establishing the principles of holography" [22]
1970 克里斯托弗·辛顿英语Christopher Hinton  英國 "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to engineering and of his leadership of engineering design teams in the chemical and atomic energy industries and in electricity generation" [23]
1972 巴兹尔·约翰·梅森英语Basil John Mason  英國 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to meteorology, particularly the physics of clouds" [24]
1974 阿兰·科特雷尔英语Alan Cottrell  英國 "In recognition of his contributions to physical metallurgy and particularly extending knowledge of the role of dislocation in the fracture of metals"
1976 伊利亚·普里高津 Belgian "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the theory of irreversible thermodynamics"
1978 乔治·波特  英國 "In recognition of his distinguished studies of very fast chemical reactions by flash photolysis" [25]
1980 威廉·弗兰克·维埃纳英语William Frank Vinen  英國 "In recognition of his discovery of the quantum of circulation in superfluid helium and his development of new techniques for precise measurements within liquid helium"
1982 查尔斯·戈里·韦恩英语Charles Gorrie Wynne  英國 "In recognition of his unique contribution to the design of optical instruments ranging from large telescopes to bubble-chamber optics"
1984 哈罗德·霍普金斯英语Harold Hopkins (physicist)  英國 "In recognition of his many contributions to the theory and design of optical instruments, especially of a wide variety of important new medical instruments which have made a major contribution to clinical diagnosis and surgery"
1986 丹尼斯·鲁克英语Denis Rooke  英國 "In recognition of his contributions to scientific developments in the gas industry" [26]
1988 菲利克斯·温伯格英语Felix Weinberg  英國 "In recognition of his pioneering work on optical diagnostics and electrical aspects of combustion and his fundamental studies of flame problems associated with jet engines and furnaces" [27]
1990 沃尔特·埃里克·斯皮尔英语Walter Eric Spear  德國 "For discovering and applying techniques for depositing and characterising thin films of high quality amorphous silicon and for demonstrating that these can be doped to give useful electronic devices, such as cost-effective solar cells and large arrays of thin film transistors, now used in commercial, flat-panel, LCD colour TV screens" [28]
1992 哈罗德·内维尔·瓦泽尔·坦珀利英语Harold Neville Vazeille Temperley  英國 "In recognition of his wide-ranging and imaginative contributions to applied mathematics and statistical physics, especially in the physical properties of liquids and the development of the Temperley-Lieb algebra"
1994 安德鲁·凯勒英语Andrew Keller  英國 "In recognition of his contributions to polymer science, in particular his elucidation of the basis of polymeric crystallization, a fundamental ingredient in many materials, to methods of making strong fibres and to the understanding of polymer solutions which underlie this technology" [29]
1996 格伦维尔·特纳英语Grenville Turner  英國 "In recognition of his work on the 40Ar/39Ar method of dating developing this technique to a sophisticated level and one which is widely used for dating extraterrestrial and terrestrial rocks" [30]
1998 理查德·弗兰德英语Richard Friend  英國 "In recognition of his leading research in the development of polymer-based electronics and optoelectronics leading to a very rapid growth of development activities aimed at plastic electronic displays, with advantages of very low cost, flexibility, and the option of curved or flat surfaces" [31]
2000 威尔逊·西贝特英语Wilson Sibbett  英國 "In recognition of his research on ultra-short pulse laser science and technology. In his work on streak cameras, he first demonstrated the technique of sub-picosecond chronoscopy whereby the cameras, by synchronous repetition, can function as oscilloscopes. He conducted pioneering work on coupled cavity modelocking, and his discovery of the technique of self-modelocking led to the commercialisation of sub-picosecond pulses over a wide tuning range. He also exploited diode-pumped solid-state lasers in nonlinear optics for frequency conversion by demonstrating the world's first all-solid-state optical parametric oscillator" [32]
2002 戴维·金英语David King  英國 "for his outstanding contributions to our fundamental understanding of the structure and dynamics of reaction processes on solid surfaces" [33]
2004 理查德·狄克逊英语Richard Dixon  英國 "in recognition of his many contributions to molecular spectroscopy and to the dynamics of molecular photodissociation" [34]
2006 让-皮埃尔·汉森英语Jean-Pierre Hansen  卢森堡 "for his pioneering work on molten salts and dense plasmas that has led the way to a quantitative understanding of the structure and dynamics of strongly correlated ionic liquids" [35]
2008 爱德华·海因兹英语Edward Hinds  英國 "for his extensive and highly innovative work in ultra-cold matter" [36]
2010 吉尔伯特·隆扎里奇英语Gilbert Lonzarich  英國 "for his outstanding work into novel types of quantum matter using innovative instrumentation and techniques"
2012 罗伊·泰勒英语J. Roy Taylor  英國 "for his outstanding contributions to tunable ultrafast lasers and nonlinear fibre optics, including fibre Raman, soliton and supercontinuum laser sources, which translated fundamental discoveries to practical technology"
2014 杰里米·鲍姆伯格英语Jeremy Baumberg  英國 "for his outstanding creativity in nanophotonics, investigating many ingenious nanostructures, both artificial and natural to support novel plasmonic phenomena relevant to Raman spectroscopy, solar cell performance and meta-materials applications."
2016 奥尔特温·赫斯英语Ortwin Hess  德國/ 英國 "for his pioneering work in active nano-plasmonics and optical metamaterials with quantum gain."

参考资料[编辑]

General

Specific

  1. ^ Oxford DNB article: Thompson, Sir Benjamin (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-27]. 
  2. ^ Malus biography. University of St Andrews. [2009-01-27]. 
  3. ^ Oxford DNB article: Wells, William Charles (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-27]. 
  4. ^ Oxford DNB article:Davy, Sir Humphry. Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-27]. 
  5. ^ Oxford DNB article: Brewster, Sir David (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-27]. 
  6. ^ Fresnel biography. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-06]. 
  7. ^ Oxford DNB article:Daniell, John Frederic. Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-27]. 
  8. ^ Amedeo Avogadro, a Scientific Biography. Springer. [2009-02-06]. 
  9. ^ Oxford DNB article:Forbes, James David (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-27]. 
  10. ^ Biot biography. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-06]. 
  11. ^ Oxford DNB article: Talbot, William Henry Fox. Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-02-09]. 
  12. ^ Oxford DNB article: Faraday, Michael (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-27]. 
  13. ^ Collection of the Month - Henri Victor Regnault. The Royal Society. [2009-01-27]. 
  14. ^ Royal Society: Simon, Sir Francis Eugene (1893-1956). Aim25. [2009-01-27]. 
  15. ^ Fellow of the month - Sir Frank Whittle. The Royal Society. [2009-01-27]. 
  16. ^ Frits Zernike - Biography. Nobel Prize Foundation. [2009-01-27]. 
  17. ^ Oxford DNB article:Burch, Cecil Reginald. Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-27]. 
  18. ^ Bowden, Frank Philip - Bright Sparcs entry. Bright Sparcs. [2009-01-27]. 
  19. ^ Oxford DNB article:Merton, Sir Thomas Ralph. Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-27]. 
  20. ^ Oxford DNB article:Newitt, Dudley Maurice (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-27]. 
  21. ^ PENNEY, William, Baron Penney of East Hendred (1909-1991). Aim25. [2009-01-27]. 
  22. ^ Dennis Gabor - Autobiography. The Nobel Foundation. [2009-01-27]. (原始内容存档于2012-05-24). 
  23. ^ Papers and correspondence of Christopher Hinton, Baron Hinton of Bankside, 1901-1983. Archives Hub. Mimas. [2009-01-27]. (原始内容存档于2012-07-20). 
  24. ^ Sir John Mason. Institute of Physics. [2009-01-27]. [失效連結]
  25. ^ Special Issue in commemoration of Lord George Porter. The Royal Society of Chemistry. [2009-01-27]. 
  26. ^ Sir Denis Rooke, OM - Telegraph. London: The Daily Telegraph. 2008-09-05 [2009-01-27]. 
  27. ^ 80th Birthday Celebration for Professor Felix Weinberg, at the Chemical Engineering Department, Imperial College London, 23 April 2008. Combustion Institute ( 英國 Section). [2009-01-27]. (原始内容存档于2 October 2011). 
  28. ^ Fitzgerald, Alexander. Walter Eric Spear - Obituary (PDF). Royal Society of Edinburgh. [2009-01-26]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2009-03-20). 
  29. ^ Professor Dixon awarded Rumford Medal. Bristol University. [2009-01-27]. 
  30. ^ Prof Grenville Turner FRS School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences. The University of Manchester. [2009-01-26]. (原始内容存档于2008-10-13). 
  31. ^ NCL Innovation Park. National Chemical Laboratory. [2009-01-26]. 
  32. ^ Professor Wilson Sibbett FRS, CBE. The Royal Society. [2009-01-26]. 
  33. ^ Annual Report :Awards, Prizes and Appointments. University of Cambridge. [2009-01-26]. 
  34. ^ Bristol University - News from the University. Bristol University. [2009-01-26]. 
  35. ^ Prof Hansen Meeting. University of Cambridge. [2009-01-26]. 
  36. ^ The Northern Echo: Prestigious awards for school's old boys. The Northern Echo. 4 November 2007 [2009-01-26]. (原始内容存档于2012-05-24).