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指定幸存者

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指定幸存者英语:Designated survivor)是在美国总统和国家其他高级领导人聚集在同一处时故意安排的一名缺席内阁成员,此举是为了确保在总统、副总统、国会领袖及内阁成员全体丧生之后仍有一名部长级官员能够依照《总统继任法案英语Presidential Succession Act》成为美利坚合众国代理总统英语Acting President of the United States

简介[编辑]

“指定幸存者”是冷战期间因为担心总统等高级领导人遭遇核打击而设置的。只有有资格接任总统的内阁成员(即35岁以上且出生于美国并在美国生活14年以上的美国公民)才可以成为“指定幸存者”。例如,前国务卿马德琳·奥尔布赖特因为并非出生在美国而是捷克斯洛伐克,所以她无法成为指定幸存者,她的名字也并不在美国总统继任顺序表之中。一般情况下,“指定幸存者”是由总统继任顺位表上的17人名单中选出。作为“总统备份”,“指定幸存者”外出时,可享受总统级别的安全保护并乘坐专用交通工具。他身边还跟随一名携带核手提箱的武官,以备不测之需[1]

从2005年开始,国会议员也有资格成为“指定幸存者”。如果参众两院只剩该名“指定幸存者”,该名幸存的参议员或者众议员会立刻升为参议院临时议长众议院议长成为仅次于副总统的总统继承人。

“指定幸存者”所在的地点是严格保密的,例如,在2010年奥巴马总统发表国情咨文期间,虽然国务卿希拉里·克林顿并未出席,但是仍指定了住房和城市发展部长肖恩·多诺万成为指定幸存者,因为外界都知道希拉里·克林顿当时正在伦敦参加一场会议[2]。但是如果此时参加总统国情咨文演讲活动的高级领导人都丧生,那么将是希拉里·克林顿而非肖恩·多诺万继任美国代理总统,因为希拉里·克林顿的继任顺位要高于肖恩·多诺万[3]

部分指定幸存者列表[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ “指定幸存者”:美国的“总统备份”
  2. ^ Kamen, Al. "Hillary Clinton will be in London for State of the Union". Washington Post. Accessed 3 February 2010.
  3. ^ 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 Cabinet members who did not attend the State of the Union address
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 1981, 1989, 1993, 2001, and 2009 speeches were given by incoming Presidents and not formal "State of the Union" addresses
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Hershey, Jr., Robert D. State of Union: Bewitched by Pageant. New York Times. 27 January 1988 [13 February 2013]. 
  6. ^ 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.20 6.21 6.22 6.23 6.24 6.25 6.26 6.27 Cabinet members who did not attend the State of the Union Address (since 1984) (PDF). United States Senate Historical Office. 
  7. ^ 1984: UPI, "Washington Dateline." Jan 25, 1984
  8. ^ 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8.17 8.18 8.19 8.20 8.21 8.22 8.23 8.24 8.25 8.26 8.27 8.28 Rachel Weiner. Steven Chu is the State of the Union 'designated survivor'. Washington Post. February 12, 2013. 
  9. ^ Gainesville Sun Gainesville Sun - Jan 21, 1985
  10. ^ 1985: UPI, "Washington News." Feb 6, 1985
  11. ^ 1986: UPI, "Washington News." Feb 4, 1986
  12. ^ 1987: UPI, "Washington News." Jan 28, 1987
  13. ^ 1990: Washington Post, Page C3. Jan 31, 1991
  14. ^ 1991: Washington Post, Page C3. Jan 31, 1991
  15. ^ 1996: USA Today, Page A12. Feb 5, 1997
  16. ^ 1997: Washington Post, "Agriculture's Glickman Draws Doomsday Duty for Address." Page A13. Feb 4, 1997
  17. ^ 1999: New York Times, "Not Being Invited Was the Honor." Page B2. Jan 21, 1999
  18. ^ 2000: Washington Post, "The Reliable Source." Page C3. Jan 28, 2000
  19. ^ 2001: New York Times, "Cabinet's 'Designated Absentee' Stays Away." Page A23. Jan 30, 2002
  20. ^ 2002: New York Times, "Cabinet's 'Designated Absentee' Stays Away." Page A23. Jan 30, 2002
  21. ^ 2003: New York Times, "Ashcroft in Secret Spot During Bush Address." Jan 29, 2003
  22. ^ 2004: AP, "Four to Miss Speech Due to Security." Jan 20, 2004
  23. ^ 23.0 23.1 23.2 For the 2005, 2006, and 2007 State of the Union addresses, the President Pro Tempore of the Senate would have been the highest-ranking survivor.
  24. ^ 2005: New York Times, "Five Officials Skip State of the Union Address." Feb 2, 2005
  25. ^ 2006: Philadelphia Inquirer, "A Message of Energy, Strength." Feb 1, 2006.
  26. ^ 2007: Washington Post, "The Reliable Source." Page C3. Jan 25, 2007.
  27. ^ 2008: AP, "Interior Secretary Skips Speech," Jan 28, 2008
  28. ^ 2009: AFP American Edition, "Gates to Sit out Obama Inauguration," January 19, 2009
  29. ^ Gates To Be Designated Successor On Inauguration Day, CBS News, January 19, 2009.
  30. ^ Holder Staying Away From Obama's Speech, Washington Post, February 24, 2009.
  31. ^ Energy secretary skips Obama health care address
  32. ^ O'Keefe, Ed. State of the Union: Ken Salazar to serve as 'designated survivor'. The Washington Post. 25 January 2011 [26 January 2011]. 
  33. ^ Associated Press. State of the Union: Tom Vilsack to serve as Cabinet's ‘designated survivor. Washington Post. 24 January 2012 [24 January 2012]. 
  34. ^ Shinseki absent from inaugural. Miami Herald. 22 January 2013 [22 January 2013]. (原始内容存档于3 二月 2014). 
  35. ^ Energy Secretary to be Designated Survivor during State of the Union. FOX News. January 28, 2014. 
  36. ^ Miller, Zeke J. This Man Will Be Your President If The Worst Happens Happens. Time. 28 January 2014 [29 January 2014]. 
  37. ^ 神秘缺席川普演說閣員 今年「指定倖存者」是誰?