掸语

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傣耶语
母语国家和地区掸邦泰国西北部、中国云南德宏
母语使用人数330萬(2001)
語系
文字傣耶文(傣绷文)、傣卯文(傣那文)、曇摩文(老傣文)
官方地位
承认少数语言 緬甸
語言代碼
ISO 639-2shn
ISO 639-3shn
Glottologshan1277[1]
本条目包含国际音标符号。部分操作系统浏览器需要特殊字母与符号支持才能正確显示,否则可能显示为乱码、问号、空格等其它符号。

掸语ရှမ်းဘာသာ[ʃáɴ bàðà];英語:the Shan language)是傣耶語关于这个音频文件 လိၵ်ႈတႆး撣語發音[lik.táj]关于这个音频文件 ၵႂၢမ်းတႆး[kwáam.táj]ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး[pʰàː.sʰàː.táj]泰語ภาษาไทใหญ่)在緬語和英語中的通稱。傣耶語是傣耶人(掸族)最主要的语言,掸邦的官方语言之一,在其它傣語支語言中時稱「堯語」(傣仂語ᦇᦲᧁᧉ转写:ngiːwˀ北部泰語ᨦ᩠ᨿ᩶ᩅ转写:ngʸawˀ寮語ງ້ຽວ/ແງ້ວ转写:ngyawˀ/ngɛːwˀ泰語เงี้ยว转写:ngyiːewˀ)。

簡述[编辑]

说掸语的人自称大傣(Tai Yai或Tai Long)。“掸”是他称,可能是暹罗一词的讹传。

掸语與傣那语非常接近。属台语支的西南部语群。

南撣邦的掸语(傣耶語)一般用傣耶文書寫,傣耶文非常接近缅文,與中國的傣绷文相同。20世纪60年代之前使用的老傣耶文還不能完整地记录掸语的语音。现行的傣耶文和语音对应良好。北掸邦接近克欽的地區的掸语(傣耶語)使用傣卯文,與東克欽、德宏的傣那文是同一文種;東撣邦的掸语(傣耶語)和傣痕語共用曇摩文,卽西雙版納老傣文。

撣語音系[编辑]

輔音[编辑]

撣語有19個輔音。與泰語和老撾語不同,撣語沒有[d][b]兩個濁口腔塞音,古內爆濁音今讀濁鼻塞音。

  雙唇音 唇齒音 齒齦音 上顎音 軟顎音 喉音
不送氣清音 送氣清音 濁音 不送氣清音 送氣清音 濁音 不送氣清音 送氣清音 濁音 不送氣清音 送氣清音 濁音
塞音 [p]
[pʰ]
    [t]
[tʰ]
  [c]
  [k]
[kʰ]
  [ʔ]1
鼻音   [m]
    [n]
  [ɲ]
  [ŋ]
 
擦音   ([f])2
[s]
      [h]
顫音       ([r])3
     
近音         [j]
  [w]
 
流音       [l]
     
1 聲門爆破音一般標記在未終止的短元音後,或者在一個元音前的無聲“a”。
2 開頭的[f]只見於某些方言詞中,其他方言區一般發音為[pʰ]
3 顫音很少見,一般用於英語或巴利語外來詞中。很多撣族人不會發[r]這個音,有時發[l]作為替代。

元音[编辑]

撣語有10個元音,13個雙元音:

前元音 央元音 後元音
/i/ /ɨ/~/ɯ/ /u/
/e/ /ə/~/ɤ/ /o/
/ɛ/ /a/
/aː/
/ɔ/

[iu], [eu], [ɛu]; [ui], [oi], [ɯi], [ɔi], [əi]; [ai], [aɯ], [au]; [aːi], [aːu]

和泰語相比,撣語的元音的比較簡單。撣族人在學習泰語時很難發出ia、ua、uea([ɯa])等雙元音。此外,撣語沒有三元音,在長元音和短元音方面也沒有泰語那樣系統性的區別。

聲調[编辑]

根據方言差異,撣語有五個或六個聲調。第六個聲調只在北部方言出現。

Contrastive tones in unchecked syllables[编辑]

The table below presents six phonemic tones in unchecked syllables, i.e. closed syllables ending in sonorant sounds such as [m], [n], [ŋ], [w], and [j] and open syllables.

No. Description IPA Description Transcription*
1 rising (24) ˨˦ Starting rather low and rising pitch ǎ a (not marked)
2 low (11) ˩ Low, even pitch à a,
3 mid(-falling) (32) ˧˨ Medium level pitch, slightly falling in the end a (not marked) a;
4 high (55) ˥ High, even pitch á a:
5 falling (creaky) (42) ˦˨ˀ Short, creaky, strongly falling with lax final glottal stop âʔ, â̰ a.
6 emphatic (343) ˧˦˧ Starting mid level, then slightly rising, with a drop at the end (similar to tones 3 and 5) a᷈
* The symbol in the first column corresponds to conventions used for other tonal languages; the second is derived from the Shan orthography.

The following table shows an example of the phonemic tones:

Tone Shan IPA Transliteration English
rising ၼႃ /nǎː/ na thick
low ၼႃႇ /nàː/ na, very
mid ၼႃႈ /nāː/ na; face
high ၼႃး /náː/ na: paddy field
creaky ၼႃႉ /na̰/ na. aunt, uncle

The Shan tones correspond to Thai tones as follows:

  1. The Shan rising tone is close to the Thai rising tone.
  2. The Shan low tone is equivalent to the Thai low tone.
  3. The Shan mid-tone is different from the Thai mid-tone. It falls in the end.
  4. The Shan high tone is close to the Thai high tone. But it is not rising.
  5. The Shan falling tone is different from the Thai falling tone. It is short, creaky and ends with a glottal stop.

Contrastive tones in checked syllables[编辑]

The table below presents four phonemic tones in checked syllables, i.e. closed syllables ending in a glottal stop [ʔ] and obstruent sounds such as [p], [t], and [k].

Tone Shan Phonemic Phonetic Transliteration English
high လၵ်း /lák/ [lak˥] lak: post
creaky လၵ်ႉ /la̰k/ [la̰k˦˨ˀ] lak. steal
low လၢၵ်ႇ /làːk/ [laːk˩] laak, differ from others
mid လၢၵ်ႈ /lāːk/ [laːk˧˨] laak; drag

音节结构[编辑]

The syllable structure of Shan is C(G)V((V)/(C)), which is to say the onset consists of a consonant optionally followed by a glide, and the rhyme consists of a monophthong alone, a monophthong with a consonant, or a diphthong alone. (Only in some dialects, a diphthong may also be followed by a consonant.) The glides are: -w-, -y- and -r-. There are seven possible final consonants: /ŋ/, /n/, /m/, /k/, /t/, /p/, and /ʔ/.

Some representative words are:

  • CV /kɔ/ also
  • CVC /kàːt/ market
  • CGV /kwàː/ to go
  • CGVC /kwaːŋ/ broad
  • CVV /kǎi/ far
  • CGVV /kwáːi/ water buffalo

Typical Shan words are monosyllabic. Multisyllabic words are mostly Pali loanwords, or Burmese words with the initial weak syllable /ə/.

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (编). Shan. Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 2016. 

參考文獻[编辑]

  • The Major Languages of East and South-East Asia. Bernard Comrie (London, 1990).
  • A Guide to the World's Languages. Merritt Ruhlen (Stanford, 1991).
  • Shan for English Speakers. Irving I. Glick & Sao Tern Moeng (Dunwoody Press, Wheaton, 1991).
  • Shan - English Dictionary. Sao Tern Moeng (Dunwoody Press, Kensington, 1995).
  • An English and Shan Dictionary. H. W. Mix (American Baptist Mission Press, Rangoon, 1920; Revised edition by S.H.A.N., Chiang Mai, 2001).
  • Grammar of the Shan Language. J. N. Cushing (American Baptist Mission Press, Rangoon, 1887).

延伸閱讀[编辑]

  • Sai Kam Mong. The History and Development of the Shan Scripts. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, 2004. ISBN 974-9575-50-4

外部連結[编辑]