敬奉

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诺托(Noto)对皮亚琴察的圣柯瑞 (San Corrado)的敬奉

基督教中,veneration拉丁语veneratio希腊语δουλιαdulia)或veneration of saints,是一个纪念圣人的特别活动,后者在该宗教传统中被确认为非凡者。该活动在东正教会罗马天主教会,有时也在圣公宗成员中举行。敬奉经常在表面上显示为在圣人的圣像画圣髑或雕像前恭敬地鞠躬或画十字聖號(sign of the cross)。上述各项物品也可能被亲吻。

本词在中文中的翻译除“敬奉”外,还有“敬礼”、“恭敬”等译法。

罗马天主教,正教,及圣公宗[编辑]

在罗马天主教、正教、及盎格鲁天主教(Anglo-Catholicism)神学中,敬奉是不同于仅属于上帝的崇拜(adoration)的一种尊敬。根据来自斯丢本维尔方济各会大学(Franciscan University of Steubenville)的执事(Deacon)马克·米拉维里博士(Dr. Mark Miravelle)的研究,英文单词"worship"与veneration和adoration都相关(以下引述马克·米拉维里博士的英文原文):

Adoration, which is known as latria in classical theology, is the worship and homage that is rightly offered to God alone. It is the acknowledgement of excellence and perfection of an uncreated, divine person. It is the worship of the Creator that God alone deserves.

Veneration, known as dulia in classical theology, is the honor due to the excellence of a created person. This refers to the excellence exhibited by the created being who likewise deserves recognition and honor. We see a general example of veneration in events like the awarding of academic awards for excellence in school, or the awarding of the Olympic medals for excellence in sports. There is nothing contrary to the proper adoration of God when we offer the appropriate honor and recognition that created persons deserve based on achievement in excellence.

Here a further clarification should be made regarding the use of the term "worship" in relation to the categories of adoration and veneration. Some schools of theology use the term "worship" to introduce both adoration and veneration. They would distinguish between "worship of adoration" and "worship of veneration." The word "worship" (in the same way the theological term "cult" is traditionally used) in these classical definitions was not at all synonymous with adoration, but could be used to introduce either adoration or veneration. Hence Catholic writers will sometimes use the term "worship" not to indicate adoration, but only the worship of veneration given to Mary and the saints.[1]

教会神学家们长期使用拉丁文名词latria以指仅归上帝的崇拜类型,而用dulia指对圣人和圣像画(icons)的敬奉(veneration)。天主教神学也将专指天主教传统中对圣母玛利亚的敬礼类型的名词hyperdulia包括在敬奉中。此区别在第七届大公会议(Seventh Ecumenical Council)(787年)的教义(dogma)结论中便被阐明,该大公会议也颁布教令称圣像破坏主义(iconoclasm)(禁止圣像和其敬奉)是异端,等于否定了耶稣道成肉身(incarnation)。

如今,罗马天主教传统通过专攻圣母玛利亚学的宗座学校如宗座玛利亚神学学院(Marianum),经由圣母玛利亚学(Mariology)领域很好地建立了关于敬奉童贞玛利亚的哲学。[2][3][4].

希伯来语中,尊敬一个人如国王或先知的词汇是שׁחה,这与崇拜上帝的词是一个词。[5]此种崇拜或对人的尊敬的例子可见1 Kings 1:23 ,其中先知納堂(Nathan)对達味王(King David)鞠躬 (שָׁחָה‎)(以下为英文原文):

And they told the king saying, "Behold, Nathan the prophet." And he came in before the king and he prostrated himself unto the king upon his face, to the ground.

该词亦可见于Genesis 23:7, 27:29, 33:3, 2 Kings 2:15, 1 Samuel 25:41以指通过向其鞠躬或拜倒以表示的对人的尊敬。

对一位天使——在拉比的评注中被确定为总领天使弥额尔(Archangel Michael)——的敬奉[6]可见于Joshua 5:14(以下为英文原文):

And he said, "Nay, but as captain of the host of the LORD have I now come." And Joshua fell on his face to the earth and worshiped, and said unto him, "What saith my lord unto his servant?" (21st Century KJV)

其他宗教传统[编辑]

基督新教中,如同其他一神教如伊斯兰教犹太教一样,敬奉有时被视为等于偶像崇拜的异端,而与列圣有关的活动等于神化的异端。新教神學通常否認敬奉(veneration)和崇拜之間可以有任何實在的區別,並且宣稱敬奉活動將基督徒的靈魂从真正的对象——对上帝的崇拜处分散開。在其基督教要义Institutes of the Christian Religion),约翰·加尔文写道,"(t)he distinction of what is called dulia and latria was invented for the very purpose of permitting divine honours to be paid to angels and dead men with apparent impunity."与此类似,伊斯兰教也谴责任何对圣像画的敬奉。印度教尊敬圣像画和穆谛(Murti),经常被视为偶像崇拜,可能也被看作是敬奉的一种。

绿色基督教(Green Christianity)(或创世中心神学Creation-centered theology)的传统中,动物、植物和自然的其他部分仅仅通过好好照看它们便可以称为被“敬奉”的,这因此向创造它们的上帝显示了尊敬和尊重。创世,被视为创世者的圣像画,是敬奉的一个有效的对象。

文字学上说,venerate是从拉丁文动词venerare而来,后者的意思是带着敬畏和尊重看待。该词和名字维纳斯Venus具有同一个词根,后者是古罗马众神中的爱神。

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Mark Miravalle, S.T.D, What is Devotion to Mary?
  2. ^ Mariology Society of America http://mariologicalsocietyofamerica.us
  3. ^ Centers of Marian Study http://www.servidimaria.org/en/attualita/promotori2/promotori2.htm
  4. ^ Publisher’s Notice in the Second Italian Edition (1986), reprinted in English Edition, Gabriel Roschini, O.S.M. (1989). The Virgin Mary in the Writings of Maria Valtorta (English Edition). Kolbe's Publication Inc. ISBN 2-920285-08-4
  5. ^ שָׁחָה‎ (shâchâh)-- A primitive root; to depress, that is, prostrate (especially reflexively in homage to royalty or God): - bow (self) down, crouch, fall down (flat), humbly beseech, do (make) obeisance, do reverence, make to stoop, worship.Hebrew Lexicon on Shachah
  6. ^ Now, this was Michael, as it is said: “Michael your prince.”Rashi's commentary on Joshua 5:15

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