数字前缀

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数字前缀 (英語:Numeral prefix) 是派生于数词或其他数字前缀。在英语和其他欧洲语言,这些前缀用来造一系列包含表示数量信息的词。

例子[编辑]

数字前缀有拉丁语希腊语梵语三种,但主要使用前两者。

具体例子如下:

英语中的数字前缀表[编辑]

数分四种:

  • Cardinal基数词):如英语中的one、two、three、four、five等
  • Multiple倍数词):once、twice、thrice等
  • Distributive(分配数词):汉语中的「各给~个」。原本指意味着one each、two each或one by one、two by two的词,但在现代常常会失去这个意思。
  • Ordinal序数词):汉语中的「第~个」,如英语的first、second、third、fourth、fifth等。也兼备分数,表示「N分之一」,但1/2有特殊形式。

对于百位数,有来自拉丁语的 -gent-,以及加上为1–9的前缀的 -cent- 两种。

拉丁语前缀 希腊语前缀** 梵语前缀[1]
基数 倍数 分配数 序数 基数 倍数 序数
0 nulli-  – meden-, ouden-  –
112 unci-  – 对于分数希腊人使用序数表示 (i.e. dodecato-)  –
18 octant-  –  –  – 如上,ogdoö  –
16 sextant-  –  –  – 如上,hecto–  –
14 quadrant-  –  –  – 如上,tetarto–  –
13 trient-  –  –  – 如上,trito–  –
12 semi-  – demi-[2]  – hemi- (mn.[需要解释] half)

e.g. hemisphere
 –  –
34 dodrant-  –  –  –  –  –
1 uni- e.g.

universe, unilateral
sim-[3] singul- prim- mono-

"一", "单"

e.g. monogamy

holo-
(整个/完整)

e.g. holocaust, holography

hen-[4]
罕见
mono- ("一, 单")

hapax- ("单次")

haplo-[4] (单倍)

monad- ("单位/单元")
prot-[5]

e.g. proton, protozoa
eka-
1 14 quasqui-

quasquicentennial
1 12 sesqui-

e.g. sesquicentennial, sesquipedalian
2 du- bi-, bis-

bireme, bilingual,

bipolar, bipartisan
bin- second- di-, dy-,[6] duo-,

dyo-
dis-[7] ("两次") 常见

dyakis- ("两次") 罕见

diplo- ("双倍")

dyad- ("一对")
deuter-[8]

e.g. Deuteron/ium

Deuteronomy

deuteraio-

(“每隔一天”)
dvi-
3 tri-

e.g. trireme
ter- tern-, trin- terti- tri-

e.g. triathlon,

Tripolis
tris-[9] ("三次") 常见

triakis- ("三次") 罕见

triplo- ("三倍")

triad- (”三个一组“)
trit-[10] ("第三")

e.g. Triton/ium

tritaio- ("每隔两天")
tri-
4 quadri-,

quadru-[11]
quater-[12] quatern-[13] quart-[14] tetra-,

tessara-
tetrakis-

("四次")

tetraplo- (”四倍“)

tetrad- (”四个一组“)

e.g. tetrahedron
tetarto- (” 第四“)

tetartaio-

(”每隔三天“)
chatur-
5 quinque-[15]  – quin-[16] quint-[17] penta- pentakis-

pentaplo-

pentad-

e.g. pentahedron
pempt-[18]

pemptaio-
pancha-
6 sexa-[19]  – sen-[20] sext-[21] hexa-[22] hexakis-

hexaplo-

hexad-

e.g. hexahedron
hect-[23]

hectaio-
shat-
7 septem-,

septi-
septen-[24] septim- hepta-[25]

e.g. heptathlon
heptakis-

heptaplo-

heptad-
hebdomo- (第七)

hebdomaio-

("每隔六天")

hebdomas ("一周")
sapta-
8 octo-

e.g. October
 – octon-[26] octav-[27] octo-

e.g. octopus
octakis-

octaplo-

octad-

e.g. octahedron
ogdoö-

ogdoaio-
ashta-
9 novem-

e.g. November
noven- nona- ennea-[28] enneakis-

enneaplo-

ennead-
enat-[29]

enataio-
navam-
10 decem-, dec- den-[30] decim-[31] deca-[32]

e.g. decathlon,

Decapolis
deca/kis/plo/d-

e.g. decahedron,

decagon
decat-[33]

decataio-
dasham-
11 undec- unden-[34] undecim-[35] hendeca-[36] hendeca/kis/plo/d- hendecat-[37]/o/aio- ekadasham-
12 duodec- duoden-

e.g. duodenum
duodecim- dodeca-[38] e.g.

dodecadactylum
dodeca/kis/plo/d-

e.g. dodecahedron
dodacat-[39]/o/aio- dvadasham-
13 tredec- treden- tredecim- tria(kai)deca-,

decatria- e.g.

triskaidekaphobia
tris(kai)decakis-,

decatria/kis/plo/d-
decatotrito-

etc.
trayodasham-
14 quattuordec- quattuorden- quattuordecim- tessara(kai)deca-,

decatettara,

decatessara-
tetra(kai)decakis-,

decatetra/kis/plo/d-

e.g. tetradecahedron/

decatetrahedron
decatotetarto- chaturdasham-
15 quinquadec-, quindec-[40] quinden-[41] quindecim-[42] pente(kai)deca-,

decapente-
penta(kai)decakis-,

decapentakis- etc.
decatopempto- panchadasham-
16 sedec-,[43]

sexdec- (但是有混种词 hexadecimal[19])
seden- sedecim- hexa(kai)deca-,

hekkaideca-,

decahex-
hexa(kai)decakis-,

decahexakis- etc.
decatohecto- shodasham-
17 septendec- septenden- septendecim- hepta(kai)deca-,

decahepta-
hepta(kai)decakis-,

decaheptakis- etc.
decatohebdomo- saptadasham-
18 octodec- octoden- octodecim- octo(kai)deca-,

decaocto-
octa(kai)decakis-,

decaoctakis- etc.
decatoogdoö- ashtadasham-
19 novemdec-,

novendec-
novemden- novemdecim- ennea(kai)deca-,

decaennea-
ennea(kai)decakis-,

decaenneakis- etc.
decatoenato- navadasham-
20 viginti- vicen-,

vigen-
vigesim- (e)icosi- eicosa/kis/plo/d-

e.g. (e)icosahedron
eicosto- vimshati-
22 duovigint- (e)icosidyo-,

dyo(e)icosi- rare

e.g. docosa-hexaenoic acid

a pejoration of dyoicosa-hexanoic
(e)icosidyakis-

(e)icosidiplo-

(e)icosidyad-
eicostodeutero-
24 quattuorvigint- (e)icositettara-,

(e)icosikaitettara-

rare
(e)icositetrakis-

(e)icositetraplo-

(e)icositetrad-

e.g. (e)icositetragon
eicostotetarto- chaturvimshati-
25 quinvigint- (e)icosipente- e.g.

eicosapenta-enoic acid
(e)icosipentakis-

(e)icosipentaplo-

(e)icosipentad-
eicostopempto-
30 triginti- tricen- trigesim- triaconta- triacontakis- etc.

e.g. triacontahedron
triacosto- trimshat-
31 untriginti- triacontahen- triacontahenakis-

triacontahenaplo-

triacontahenad-
triacostoproto-

triacostoprotaio-
40 quadraginti- quadragen- quadragesim- tettaraconta-,

tessaraconta-
tettaracontakis-,

tessaracontakis- etc.
tessaracosto- chatvarimshat-
50 quinquaginti-[44] quinquagen-[45] quinquagesim-[46] penteconta-

e.g. penteconter
pentecontakis- etc. pentecosto-

e.g. pentecost
panchashat-
60 sexaginti- sexagen- sexagesim- hexeconta- hexecontakis- etc. hexecosto- shasti-
70 septuaginti-

e.g. Septuagint
septuagen- septuagesim-[47] hebdomeconta- hebdomecontakis- etc. hebdomecosto- saptati-
80 octogint- octogen- octogesim- ogdoëconta- ogdoëcontakis- etc. ogdoëcosto- ashiti-
90 nonagint- nonagen- nonagesim- eneneconta- enenecontakis- etc. enenecosto- navati-
100 centi- centen- centesim- hecato(n)- hecatontakis-

hundred times

hecatontaplo-

hundred-multiple

hecatontad-

hundred of a kind

also abbreviated in

hec[aton]tad-
hecatosto-

hundredth

hecatostaio-

the hundredth day
shata–
120 viginticenti-     hecaton(e)icosi- hecaton(e)icosakis- etc. hecatostoeicosto-  
200 ducenti- ducen-,

bicenten-
ducentesim- diacosia- diacosakis- etc. diacosiosto-  –
300 trecenti- trecen-,

tercenten-,

tricenten-
trecentesim- triacosia- etc. triacosakis-

triacosaplo-

triacosad-
triacosiosto-  –
400 quadringenti- quadringen-,

quatercenten-,

quadricenten-
quadringentesim- tetracosia- tetracosakis- etc. tetracosiosto-
500 quingent-,[48]

quincent-[49]
quingen-,[50]

quingenten-,

quincenten-
quingentesim-[51] pentacosia- pentacosakis- etc. pentacosiosto-
600 sescenti-, sexcenti- sescen-,

sexcenten-
sescentesim- hexacosia- hexacosakis- etc. hexacosiosto-
700 septingenti- septingen-,

septingenten-,

septcenten-
septingentesim- heptacosia- heptacosakis- etc. heptacosiosto-
800 octingenti- octingen-,

octingenten-,

octocenten-
octingentesim- octacosia- octacosakis- etc. octacosiosto-  –
900 nongenti- nongen- nongentesim- ennacosi-[52]

derived from

en(n)iacosia-,

a pejoration of

enneacosia-
enneacosakis- etc. enacosiost-,[53]

alt. spelling

en(n)iacosiost(o)-

a pejoration of

enneacosiosto-
 –
1000 milli- millen- millesim- chili-,[54]

kilo-
chiliakis-

chiliaplo-

chiliad-
chiliost-[55] sahasra–
2000 duomilli  –-  - dischili-[56] dischiliakis- etc. dischiliosto-  –
3000 tremilli- trischili-[57] trischiliost-[58]  –
5000 quinmilli– pentacischili-[59]
10000 decamilli– myria-,[60]

e.g. myriapoda

decakischilia-
myriakis-

myriaplo-

myriad-

decakischiliakis- etc.
myriast-,[61]

decakischiliosto-
ayuta–
80000 octogintmilli– octacismyri-[62]
105 centimilli;– decakismyria-,

hecatontakis

chilia-
decakismyriakis-,

hecatontakis

chiliakis-
etc.
106 million-  – hecatommyria- hecatommyriakis-

("十万次")

hecatommyriaplo-

("十万倍")

hecatommyriad-

("十万个一组")
hecatommyriosto-

(第十万;或十万之一)

hecatommyriostaio-

("每隔九万九千九百九十九天")
109 billion-  – dis

hecatommyria-
dis

hecatommyriakis-
etc.
1012 trillion-  – tris

hecatommyria-
tris

hecatommyriakis-
etc.
1015 quadrillion-  – tetrakis

hecatommyria-
tetrakis

hecatommyriakis-
etc.
1018 quintillion-  –
1021 sextillion-  –
1024 septillion-  –
1027 octillion-  –
1030 nonillion-  –
1033 decillion-  – decakis

hecatommyria-
decakis

hecatommyriakis-
etc.
10303 centillion-  – hecatontakis

hecatommyria-
hecatontakis

hecatommyriakis-
etc.
103003  – chiliakis

hecatommyria-
chiliakis

hecatommyriakis-
etc.
1030003  – myriakis

hecatommyria-
myriakis

hecatommyriakis-
etc.
10300003  – decakismyriakis

hecatommyria- and so on -

virtually endless
decakismyriakis

hecatommyriakis-
etc.
少量

(1–20)
pauci-

e.g. pauciparous
 – oligo-

e.g. oligomer, oligonucleotide, oligopeptide, oligosaccharide, oligopoly
大量

(> 1)
multi-

e.g. multilingual, multiple

pluri

e.g. plural wife, pluralism
 – poly-

e.g. polyhedra, polygamy, polypod, polyglot, polymath
pollakis-

("多次")

pollaplo-

(”多次“)

plethos, plethora

(”多个为一组“)
pollosto-

(次序中排在第一后的, 即序数大于1)
bahut–


补充[编辑]

  • 元音脱落:数字前缀结尾的元音会在以元音为开头的词干前脱落。但除了 bi-, 其在元音前为 bis-, 而其他单音节前缀 du-、di-、dvi-、tri- 即使接以元音为开头的词干也保持不变。
  • 连字符:数字前缀不加入连字符的情况比较多、但还是有把quarterdeck写成quarter-deck的例外。在IUPAC命名法国际单位制词头中不会加入连字符。

同样的后缀可用于不同数:

primary secondary tertiary quartary quintary sextary - - nonary -
singulary binary ternary, trinary quaternary quinary senary septenary octonary nonenary denary

化学命名中,11(undeca-)这个前缀混合了拉丁语和希腊语,并以 -cos- 表示二十,例如 tricos- 是 23。同样,表示进位制binary, trinary, senaryoctal, decimal, vigesimal

拉丁语基数词[编辑]

拉丁语分配数词[编辑]

  • unary, binary, trinary, quaternary, quinary, senary, … vicenary … centenary …
  • denarian, vicenarian, tricenarian, quadragenarian, quinquagenarian, sexagenarian, septuagenarian, octogenarian, nonagenarian, centenarian, … millenarian

希腊语[编辑]

  • monad, dyad, triad, tetrad, pentad, hexad, heptad, ogdoad, ennead, decad, ... triacontad, ... hecatontad, chiliad, myriad
  • digon, trigon, tetragon, pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, enneagon, decagon, hendecagon, dodecagon, ... enneadecagon, icosagon, triacontagon, ... chiliagon, myriagon
  • trilogy, tetralogy, pentalogy, hexalogy, heptalogy
  • monopod, dipod, tripod, tetrapod, hexapod, octopod, decapod

混合语言[编辑]

参见[编辑]

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ See Mendeleev's predicted elements for the most common use of Sanskrit numerical prefixes.
  2. ^ Demi- is French, from Latin dimidium.
  3. ^ sim- (sin-) is found in the words simplex, simple.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 The Greek prefix for 'one' is normally mono- 'alone'. Hen- 'one' is only used in compound numbers (hendeka- 11) and a few words like henad (= monad). Haplo- 'single' is found is a few technical words such as haploid.
  5. ^ πρῶτος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  6. ^ δύο
  7. ^ δίς
  8. ^ δεύτερος
  9. ^ τρίς
  10. ^ τρίτος
  11. ^ The forms related to quattuor "four", like the previous three integers, are irregular in Latin and other Indo-European languages, and the details, while presumably a form of assimilation, are unclear. Andrew Sihler, New comparative grammar of Greek and Latin, p. 412, and Carl Darling Buck, Comparative grammar of Greek and Latin. In particular, quadri- has the alternate form quadru- before p in some Latin words, such as quadruple.
  12. ^ quăter. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  13. ^ quăterni. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  14. ^ quartus. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  15. ^ quinque. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  16. ^ quīni. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  17. ^ quintus. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  18. ^ πέμπτος
  19. ^ 19.0 19.1 Sometimes Greek hexa- is used in Latin compounds, such as hexadecimal, due to taboo avoidance with the English word sex.
  20. ^ sēni. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  21. ^ sextus. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  22. ^ ἕξ
  23. ^ ἕκτος
  24. ^ septēni. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  25. ^ ἑπτά
  26. ^ octōni. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  27. ^ octāvus. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  28. ^ ἐννέα
  29. ^ ἔνατος
  30. ^ dēni. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  31. ^ dĕcĭmus. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  32. ^ δέκα
  33. ^ δέκατος
  34. ^ undēni. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  35. ^ undĕcĭmus. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  36. ^ ἕνδεκα
  37. ^ ἑνδέκατος
  38. ^ δώδεκα
  39. ^ δωδέκατος
  40. ^ quindĕcim. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  41. ^ quindēni. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  42. ^ quindĕcĭmus. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  43. ^ sēdĕcim. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  44. ^ quinquāginta. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  45. ^ quinquāgēni. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  46. ^ quinquāgēsĭmus. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  47. ^ Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, S , septĭfārĭam , septŭāgēsimus. www.perseus.tufts.edu. [26 February 2019]. (原始内容存档于2020-07-26). 
  48. ^ quingenti. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  49. ^ quincenti. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  50. ^ quingēni. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  51. ^ quingentēsĭmus. [2011-05-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
  52. ^ ἐννακόσιοι
  53. ^ ἐνακοσιοστός
  54. ^ χίλιοι
  55. ^ χιλιοστός
  56. ^ δισχίλιοι
  57. ^ τρισχίλιοι
  58. ^ τρισχιλιοστός
  59. ^ πεντακισχίλιοι
  60. ^ μυρίος
  61. ^ μυριαστός
  62. ^ ὀκτακισμύριοι
  63. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为quadru2的参考文献提供内容
  64. ^ In organic chemistry, most prefixes are Greek but the prefixes for 9 and 11 are Latin.

参考文献[编辑]

    • Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition
    • Buck, Carl Darling, Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin
    • Sihler, Andrew Littleton, A New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆, Oxford University Press 1995 ISBN 0195083458


外部链接[编辑]