整形

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整形又稱整型[1]整容,是指透過外科手術改變身體外觀。整形通常指臉部整型,包括割雙眼皮、墊下巴、隆鼻、嫩唇、造酒窩痘、種睫毛等。不少人以為矯形理解為整形,但兩者實屬不同。整形並非身體上的缺陷或傷殘,是當事人因自己個人喜好或其他非醫療上的原因,以外科手術改變自己的外觀,手術其實是沒有必要,而且外觀的看法是很主觀的,就算把多位明星最優美的部位,組合再一起也不見得好看,每個人喜歡的類型都不同,這是沒有一定的。矯形則是因為疾病、後天因素或意外導致永久的身體缺陷或傷殘,可透過以外科手術補救或矯正,而這類手術通常是有需要或必須的。

韓國歐美,整容情況頗為普遍。根據國際美容整形外科學會(ISAPS)報告指,南韓19至49歲女性中,有20%人曾接受整容手術。整體而言,每77人中有1人曾整形,以雙眼皮及隆鼻手術屬最熱門。[2]另一邊廂,高達五分之三好萊塢女演員曾經易容[3] [4]

於美國整形外科學會統計,2015年男性進行整容外科手術的總數有120萬人,而受訪的31%男性表示極有可能考慮整容手術。而與吸脂、眼部提升一同列入五大最受歡迎手術的亦有乳房縮小。國外模特兒Stefan Toic亦曾公開表示嘗試改變飲食希望縮小乳房也沒有用,最終亦進行了此項手術[5]

韓國的大型連鎖醫美診所Dermaster Clinic的權漢鎮院長接受訪問時表示大型醫院、連鎖式經營的醫美診所提供的療程並不一定比小型的有保障,最看重的是治療師的經驗和技巧,而且不太建議在匆匆的旅行行程中接受美容療程[6]

歷史[编辑]

Treatments for the plastic repair of a broken nose are first mentioned in the Edwin Smith Papyrus, a transcription of an Ancient Egyptian medical text, one of the oldest known surgical treatises, dated to the Old Kingdom from 3000 to 2500 BC. Reconstructive surgery techniques were being carried out in India by 800 BC. Sushruta was a physician who made important contributions to the field of plastic and cataract surgery in 6th century BC. The medical works of both Sushruta and Charak, originally in Sanskrit, were translated into the Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate in 750 AD. The Arabic translations made their way into Europe via intermediaries. In Italy, the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.


Statue of Sushrut, the Father of Plastic Surgery, at Haridwar British physicians traveled to India to see rhinoplasties being performed by Indian methods. Reports on Indian rhinoplasty performed by a Kumhar vaidya were published in the Gentleman's Magazine by 1794. Joseph Constantine Carpue spent 20 years in India studying local plastic surgery methods. Carpue was able to perform the first major surgery in the Western world in the year of 1815. Instruments described in the Sushruta Samhita were further modified in the Western world.


The Roman scholar Aulus Cornelius Celsus recorded surgical techniques, including plastic surgery, in the first century AD. The Romans also performed plastic cosmetic surgery. The Romans were able to perform simple techniques, such as repairing damaged ears, from around the 1st century BC. For religious reasons, they did not dissect either human beings or animals, thus their knowledge was based in its entirety on the texts of their Greek predecessors. Notwithstanding, Aulus Cornelius Celsus left some surprisingly accurate anatomical descriptions, some of which — for instance, his studies on the genitalia and the skeleton — are of special interest to plastic surgery.

In 1465, Sabuncu's book, description, and classification of hypospadias was more informative and up to date. Localization of urethral meatus was described in detail. Sabuncuoglu also detailed the description and classification of ambiguous genitalia.[來源請求] In mid-15th-century Europe, Heinrich von Pfolspeundt described a process "to make a new nose for one who lacks it entirely, and the dogs have devoured it" by removing skin from the back of the arm and suturing it in place. However, because of the dangers associated with surgery in any form, especially that involving the head or face, it was not until the 19th and 20th centuries that such surgery became common.

Up until the use of anesthesia became established, surgeries involving healthy tissues involved great pain. Infection from surgery was reduced by the introduction of sterile techniques and disinfectants. The invention and use of antibiotics, beginning with sulfonamide and penicillin, was another step in making elective surgery possible.

In 1793, François Chopart performed operative procedure on a lip using a flap from the neck. In 1814, Joseph Carpue successfully performed operative procedure on a British military officer who had lost his nose to the toxic effects of mercury treatments. In 1818, German surgeon Carl Ferdinand von Graefe published his major work entitled Rhinoplastik. Von Graefe modified the Italian method using a free skin graft from the arm instead of the original delayed pedicle flap. [來源請求]

The first American plastic surgeon was John Peter Mettauer, who, in 1827, performed the first cleft palate operation with instruments that he designed himself. In 1845, Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach wrote a comprehensive text on rhinoplasty, titled Operative Chirurgie, and introduced the concept of reoperation to improve the cosmetic appearance of the reconstructed nose. [來源請求]

In 1891, American otorhinolaryngologist John Roe presented an example of his work: a young woman on whom he reduced a dorsal nasal hump for cosmetic indications. In 1892, Robert Weir experimented unsuccessfully with xenografts (duck sternum) in the reconstruction of sunken noses. In 1896, James Israel, a urological surgeon from Germany, and in 1889 George Monks of the United States each described the successful use of heterogeneous free-bone grafting to reconstruct saddle nose defects. In 1898, Jacques Joseph, the German orthopaedic-trained surgeon, published his first account of reduction rhinoplasty. In 1928, Jacques Joseph published Nasenplastik und Sonstige Gesichtsplastik.

现代整形技术的发展[编辑]

Walter Yeo, a sailor injured at the Battle of Jutland, is assumed to have received plastic surgery in 1917. The photograph shows him before (left) and after (right) receiving a flap surgery performed by Gillies The father of modern plastic surgery is generally considered to have been Sir Harold Gillies. A New Zealand otolaryngologist working in London, he developed many of the techniques of modern facial surgery in caring for soldiers suffering from disfiguring facial injuries during the First World War.[來源請求]

During World War I he worked as a medical minder with the Royal Army Medical Corps. After working with the renowned French oral and maxillofacial surgeon Hippolyte Morestin on skin graft, he persuaded the army's chief surgeon, Arbuthnot-Lane, to establish a facial injury ward at the Cambridge Military Hospital, Aldershot, later upgraded to a new hospital for facial repairs at Sidcup in 1917. There Gillies and his colleagues developed many techniques of plastic surgery; more than 11,000 operations were performed on more than 5,000 men (mostly soldiers with facial injuries, usually from gunshot wounds).[來源請求]After the war, Gillies developed a private practice with Rainsford Mowlem, including many famous patients, and travelled extensively to promote his advanced techniques worldwide.


In 1930, Gillies' cousin, Archibald McIndoe, joined the practice and became committed to plastic surgery. When World War II broke out, plastic surgery provision was largely divided between the different services of the armed forces, and Gillies and his team were split up. Gillies himself was sent to Rooksdown House near Basingstoke, which became the principal army plastic surgery unit; Tommy Kilner (who had worked with Gillies during the First World War, and who now has a surgical instrument named after him, the kilner cheek retractor), went to Queen Mary's Hospital, Roehampton, and Mowlem to St Albans. McIndoe, consultant to the RAF, moved to the recently rebuilt Queen Victoria Hospital in East Grinstead, Sussex, and founded a Centre for Plastic and Jaw Surgery. There, he treated very deep burn, and serious facial disfigurement, such as loss of eyelids, typical of those caused to aircrew by burning fuel.[來源請求]

McIndoe is often recognized for not only developing new techniques for treating badly burned faces and hands but also for recognising the importance of the rehabilitation of the casualties and particularly of social reintegration back into normal life. He disposed of the "convalescent uniforms" and let the patients use their service uniforms instead. With the help of two friends, Neville and Elaine Blond, he also convinced the locals to support the patients and invite them to their homes. McIndoe kept referring to them as "his boys" and the staff called him "The Boss" or "The Maestro."[來源請求]

His other important work included development of the walking-stalk skin graft, and the discovery that immersion in saline promoted healing as well as improving survival rates for victims with extensive burns — this was a serendipitous discovery drawn from observation of differential healing rates in pilots who had come down on land and in the sea. His radical, experimental treatments led to the formation of the Guinea Pig Club at Queen Victoria Hospital, Sussex. Among the better known members of his "club" were Richard Hillary, Bill Foxley and Jimmy Edwards.[來源請求]

整形外科[编辑]

医学上,整形外科外科學中的一個分科。医疗临床实践中,它屬於外科其中一個次專科。

整形外科也可称为整复外科,分為兩個部分:「整形修复」(plastic and reconstructive)以及「美容」(cosmetic),目的在使用外科的技巧改變人的外表與功能。

常見疾病[编辑]

風險[编辑]

雖然整容愈來愈普遍,但危險性極高。香港和中國大陸早前便證實了聚丙烯醯胺凝膠(PAAG,有用於隆乳上)會致癌,有很多人都被逼把物料拿出來。1994年度阿根廷小姐Solange Magnano在2009年11月底因進行隆臀部手術導致肺栓塞,因而死亡。[7]

十大整容手術進行國家[编辑]

2010年首十國整容手術進行总數佔全部之百分比。(注意此數據是計算手術進行佔全球比例,並不是計算該國國民整容人數,例如在美國接受手術的可能是外國人):[8]

  1. 美國21.1%
  2. 巴西9.8%
  3. 中國7.1%
  4. 日本6.5%
  5. 墨西哥5.4%
  6. 意大利4.8%
  7. 南韓4.4%
  8. 印度3.2%
  9. 法國3.1%
  10. 德國2.8%

微整形[编辑]

除了上述以手術或矯治方式達到改善外觀的傳統整形外,現今也另有一種微整型。微整型意即不需要透過手術,即可達達到改善外觀或美容保養的效果,其優點為成本較低、且風險較小。

市面上常見的微整形概略可分為以下兩種:

參考資料[编辑]

外部链接[编辑]