文化鬥爭

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德國諷刺報刊喧聲》的一幅政治漫畫描繪當時文化鬥爭的情況,圖中兩人分別為教宗(右)與俾斯麥。教宗:「無可否認,最後此舉讓我不愉快,但我沒有在這次鬥爭中輸掉;我還有一步非常漂亮的秘招。」俾斯麥:「這也將是最後一步,然後你會在幾個回合內被將死──至少在德國。」

文化鬥爭德語:Kulturkampf ,字面意思為「文化的鬥爭」)是指普魯士王國羅馬天主教會在1870年代的政治角力。[1] 當時普魯士王國首相卑斯麥於1871年到1878年所頒布的德國政策,目的是旨在減少羅馬天主教會對普魯士的影響和權力。該政策最終失敗告吹。天主教組織了一個強大的新政黨,而卑斯麥也跟他們妥協。

另見[编辑]

資料來源[编辑]

  1. ^ David Blackbourn. The Long Nineteenth Century: A History of Germany, 1780-1918. Oxford University Press. 1997: 262. 

參考文獻[编辑]

  • Anderson, Margaret Lavinia. Windthorst: A Political Biography (1981), the leader pf the Catholic Center Party
  • Bennette, Rebecca Ayako. Fighting for the Soul of Germany: The Catholic Struggle for Inclusion After Unification (Harvard University Press; 2012) 368 pages; examines Catholics' promotion of an alternative national identity after 1871.
  • Blackbourn, David. Marpingen: Apparitions of the Virgin Mary in Nineteenth-Century Germany (Oxford, 1993)
  • Gross, Michael B. The War against Catholicism: Liberalism and the Anti-Catholic Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Germany (2005)
  • Hollyday, FBM, Bismarck, Great Lives Observed, Prentice-Hall, 1970 .
  • Hope, Nicholas, "Prussian Protestantism," in Philip G. Dwyer, ed. Modern Prussian History: 1830–1947 (2001) pp. 188–208
  • Lamberti, Marjorie. "Religious conflicts and German national identity in Prussia, 1866–1914," in Philip G. Dwyer, ed. Modern Prussian History: 1830–1947 (2001) pp. 169–187
  • Ross, Ronald J. The failure of Bismarck's Kulturkampf: Catholicism and state power in imperial Germany, 1871–1887, (Washington, D.C., 1998)
  • Ross, Ronald J. "Enforcing the Kulturkampf in the Bismarckian state and the limits of coercion in imperial Germany." Journal of Modern History (1984): 456-482. in JSTOR
  • Ross, Ronald J. "The Kulturkampf: Restrictions and Controls on the Practice of Religion in Bismarck’s Germany." in by Richard Helmstadter, ed. Freedom and Religion in the Nineteenth Century (1997) pp: 172-195.
  • Trzeciakowski, Lech. The Kulturkampf in Prussian Poland (East European Monographs, 1990) 223 pp
  • Zeender, John. "Ludwig Windthorst, 1812-1891" History (1992) 77#250 pp 237-54, the leader pf the Catholic Center Party

外部連結[编辑]