新神秘主義

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新神秘主义,也简称神秘主义(英語:new mysterianism),是指困难问题不能被人类解决的观点。如何解释感质(个人主觀的意识经验),是有待解决的问题。心灵哲学的众多流派中,神秘主义是其中一种回应。有些“神秘主义者”不妥协地认为永远也不能解答困难问题;也有人仅仅认为意识只是暂时不能被现阶段的人类理解,但随着科学进步,仍然有机会理解困难问题。

名称[编辑]

欧文·弗拉纳根英语Owen Flanagan在1991年著作《心灵的科学》(英語:Science of the Mind)中写道,有些当代的思想家认为意识可能永远也不能得到解释。于是欧文·弗拉纳根就称他们为“新神秘主义者”,根据的是摇滚乐队问号和神秘主义者英语Question Mark and the Mysterians之名。[1] “但是新神秘主义是后现代的立场,想要组织关于心的科学主义发展。”[2]这一术语已经被一些哲学作者使用,指涉更广阔的立场,即人类没有智力在科学层面上解决(或理解)许多困难的问题,不单单仅是意识问题。[3]这一立场也被称作是反建设的自然主义英语anti-constructive naturalism.

根据弗拉纳根,“‘旧的神秘主义者’是二元论者,认为意识不能被科学理解,是因为它根据非自然的原则运行,可以是可知的,也可以是不可知的。”显然,“旧的神秘主义者”适用于戈特弗里德·莱布尼茨塞缪尔·约翰逊托马斯·亨利·赫胥黎等人。例如,赫胥黎在The Elements of Physiology and Hygiene[4]和《论动物是机械的假设,及其历史》(见下》中写道:

The consciousness of brutes would appear to be related to the mechanism of their body simply as collateral product of its working, and to be completely without any power of modifying that working, as the steam-whistle which accompanies the work of a locomotive engine is without influence upon its machinery. Their volition, if they have any, is an emotion indicative of physical changes, not a cause of such changes... The soul stands to the body as the bell of a clock to the works, and consciousness answers to the sound which the bell gives out when it is struck... To the best of my judgment, the argumentation which applies to brutes holds good of men... We are conscious automata.[2] — 托马斯·亨利·赫胥黎,"On the Hypothesis that Animals are Automata, and its History",1874

哲学[编辑]

支持新神秘主义立场的哲学论证包括感质

诺姆·乔姆斯基区分了问题(英語:problem)和(英語:mystery)两个概念。他认为,所有有机体的认知能力都是受到生物的限制的,例如,老鼠永远不会像人类一样说话,因此,人类也有不能理解的问题。

批判[编辑]

唯心主义者批判神秘主义者的观点是不科学的,例如“我们可能永远不会知道”。明显的悖论是,意识是“外在”的,却对于所有个体都是主观的,这想要得到解决,除非审视主观内在,也就是向内看的科学。[來源請求]

支持者[编辑]

历史上[编辑]

  • 卡尔·荣格,瑞士精神分析学家,"Man and His Symbols" (1964)

当代[编辑]

反对者[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

引用[编辑]

  1. ^ Flanagan, Owen. TheScienceoftheMind. [[麻省理工学院出版社|]]. 1991: 313. ISBN 0-262-56056-9. Question Mark and the Mysterians. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Flanagan, O.J. Consciousness Reconsidered. Bradford Books. MIT Press. 1992: 10,131. ISBN 978-0-262-56077-1. LCCN lc92010057. 
  3. ^ Mike Hockney. Free Will and Will to Power. [1]
  4. ^ The Elements of Physiology and Hygiene: A Text-book for Educational Institutions. D. Appleton, 1869, p. 178
  5. ^ William James "Is Life Worth Living" (1896) https://archive.org/stream/islifeworthlivin00jameuoft#page/n7/mode/2up
  6. ^ McGinn, Colin. Can We Solve the Mind-Body Problem?. Mind. 1989, 98 (391): 349–366. JSTOR 2254848. 
  7. ^ Colin McGinn. All machine and no ghost?. [[新政治家|]]. 2012-02-20 [2012-03-27]. 
  8. ^ "A Mind at Play: An Interview with Martin Gardner" by Kendrick Frazier, Skeptical Inquirer Volume 22.2, March/April 1998
  9. ^ https://mindbodyproblems.com/
  10. ^ Pinker, Steven. How the Mind Works. 2009-06-22. ISBN 9780393069730. 
  11. ^ http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1580394-6,00.html
  12. ^ Of Beauty and Consolation, Ep. 9
  13. ^ "The Mystery of Consciousness II", 19 October 2011.
  14. ^ Dennett, Daniel C. The Brain and Its Boundaries. Times Literary Supplement英语Times Literary Supplement (London). 1991-05-10 [2018-02-02]. (原始内容存档于2018-02-02).  (Corrected by erratum notice, 24 May, pg 29.)

推荐阅读[编辑]

  • McGinn, Colin (1991), The Problem of Consciousness
  • Flanagan, Owen英语Owen Flanagan (1991), The Science of the Mind, 2ed MIT Press, Cambridge
  • McGinn, Colin (1993), Problems in Philosophy: The Limits of Inquiry, Blackwell, ISBN 1-55786-475-6
  • Horgan, John (1996), The End of Science: Facing the Limits of Knowledge in the Twilight of the Scientific Age, Addison-Wesley; has a discussion of mysterianism (pp 177–180).
  • Blackburn, Simon英语Simon Blackburn (1999), Think: A Compelling Introduction to Philosophy, chapter two
  • Horgan, John英语John Horgan (American journalist) (1999), The Undiscovered Mind, Phoenix, ISBN 0-7538-1098-0
  • McGinn, Colin (1999), The Mysterious Flame