日落黃

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日落黃
IUPAC名
Disodium 6-hydroxy-5-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]-2-naphthalenesulfonate
英文名 Sunset Yellow FCF
别名 橙黃S、FD&C黃色6號(美國)、食用黃色五號(臺灣)、C.I. 15985、E110
识别
CAS号 2783-94-0  ✓
PubChem 6093232
ChemSpider 11431290
SMILES
InChI
InChIKey OIQPTROHQCGFEF-JLAJEUQUBH
KEGG C19531
性质
化学式 C16H10N2Na2O7S2
摩尔质量 452.37 g·mol−1
外观 橙紅色粉末
熔点 300 °C(573 K)
溶解性 可溶於水
危险性
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
1
2
0
 
若非注明,所有数据均出自一般条件(25 ℃,100 kPa)下。

日落黃Sunset Yellow FCF),是一種人工合成的橘橙色偶氮類酸性染料,是從石油中製造出來的芳香族烴類。當在食品及飲料中作著色劑使用時,根據法例需在其成份標示:在美國售賣時,會標明FD&C Yellow 6;在歐洲售賣時,會標明其E編碼E110[1];在台灣售賣時,會標明黃色五號

應用[编辑]

日落黃主要用於食品、飲料、日用化妝品及藥物作著色劑[2][3][4][5]:4。舉例說:可用於糖果、甜點、小吃、醬料及涼果等[6]:463–465。日落黃常與另一種叫作E123Amaranth (dye)英语Amaranth (dye)著色劑一起使用,以產生巧克力或焦糖的那種棕色效果[7]

安全性[编辑]

無論是EU或WHO/FAO的指引,日落黃的一日可接受攝取量(ADI)都是0-4 mg/kg[6]:465[8] 。Sunset Yellow FCF has no carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, or developmental toxicity in the amounts at which it is used.[6]:465[8]

It has been claimed since the late 1970s under the advocacy of Benjamin Feingold英语Benjamin Feingold that Sunset Yellow FCC causes 食物不耐症 and 注意力不足過動症-like behavior in children but there is no scientific evidence to support these broad claims.[9]:452 It is possible that certain food coloring may act as a trigger in those who are genetically predisposed, but the evidence is weak.[10][11]

作食品添加物使用的監管[编辑]

歐洲[编辑]

目前日落黃在挪威芬兰瑞典都被禁止作食品添加物使用[12][13]

US[编辑]

Sunset Yellow FCF is known as FD&C Yellow No. 6 in the US and is approved for use in coloring food, drugs, and cosmetics with an acceptable daily intake of 3.75 mg/kg.[11]:2,7

參見[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Wood, Roger M. Analytical methods for food additives. Boca Raton: CRC Press英语CRC Press. 2004. ISBN 1-85573-722-1. 
  2. ^ Codex Alimentarius (Codex GFSA) Online. Updated up to the 37th Session of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (2014) Sunset yellow FCF (110)
  3. ^ FDA December 2009 Color Additive Status List
  4. ^ EU Food Additive Database Sunset Yellow FCF/Orange Yellow S 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. Database accessed 6 December 2014]
  5. ^ European Medicines Agency 19 June 2007 [Guideline on Excipients in the Dossier for Application for Marketing Authorisation of a Medicinal Product]
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 Abbey J, et at. Colorants. pp 459-465 in Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Vol 2: Hazards and Diseases. Eds, Motarjemi Y et al. Academic Press, 2013. ISBN 9780123786135
  7. ^ Food: The Chemistry of Its Components. 英国皇家化学学会. [2014-12-06]. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS) https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/3765 Reconsideration of the temporary ADI and refined exposure assessment for Sunset Yellow FCF (E 110)] EFSA Journal 2014;12(7):3765 . doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3765
  9. ^ Tomaska LD and Brooke-Taylor, S. Food Additives - General pp 449-454 in Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Vol 2: Hazards and Diseases. Eds, Motarjemi Y et al. Academic Press, 2013. ISBN 9780123786135
  10. ^ Millichap JG; Yee MM. The diet factor in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics. February 2012, 129 (2): 330–337. PMID 22232312. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-2199. 
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 FDA. Background Document for the Food Advisory Committee: Certified Color Additives in Food and Possible Association with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children: March 30-31, 2011
  12. ^ The additives which could be banned. The Telegraph. 2009 [2014-12-06]. 
  13. ^ Food additives. CBC News英语CBC News. 2008-09-29. (原始内容存档于2013-09-09) (英语). 

外部連結[编辑]