普尔 (货币)

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普尔(俄语:пул韃靼語پول[1],历史上中亚及周边地区曾使用的一种小额铜币称谓。曾使用普尔钱的有金帐汗国阿富汗布哈拉汗国[2]察合台汗国浩罕汗国准噶尔汗国俄属突厥斯坦等。约每50枚普尔钱折合1个腾格[3];约60枚普尔钱折合1个戈比[4]

语源[编辑]

“普尔”一词来自于中古波斯语的“*pōl”,由古希臘語“ὀβολός”(obolós)演变而来。[5]

金帐汗国[编辑]

金帐汗国,官方规定每16枚普尔钱兑换1个dannik钱。普尔钱一般在有人要求用原铜兑换硬币时进行打造。汗王和他们的财政官员长通过发行带有“新普尔”钱文的新硬币来操纵普尔钱的市场价值,同时会宣布其他正在流通的普尔钱不再是合法的交换媒介,庶民必须将老普尔钱换成新普尔钱。尽管普尔钱并没有标准的重量,但新普尔钱一般比老普尔钱重。官方上每个dannik钱仍值16普尔,但它仅仅是象征性的,各地政府会自行规定兑换比率。[6]

准噶尔汗国[编辑]

准噶尔汗国兼并叶尔羌汗国后,由于天山南路西四城,也就是喀什噶尔和田叶尔羌英吉沙四城的商品经济发达,参照原叶尔羌汗国钱币铸造发行准噶尔普尔钱。准噶尔普尔为红铜制造,钱文为准噶尔汗王的名字和打铸地的地名。重量从一钱四分到二钱四分均有,多在两钱左右。每五十枚折合一腾格,但各地也有稍作变化的。[3]

清代新疆[编辑]

叶尔羌局乾隆通宝钱

清政府平定準噶爾之后,再南疆先后设立叶尔羌阿克苏乌什库车喀什噶尔铸钱局,铸造发行“乾隆通宝”等圆形方孔钱,相比北疆和内地各钱局铸造的铜钱,南疆各局铸行的钱币含铜量高,外观呈红色,被称为新疆红钱,也称新普尔。新疆红钱限在南疆使用,与普通制钱的比率为1:5。

参考[编辑]

  1. ^ Academia.org Persian Legends on Islamic Coins: From Traditional Arabic to the Challenge of Leadership. Uploaded by: Vladimir Nastich. Retrieved: 16 July 2017.
  2. ^ ANS Magazine The Coinage of the Mangit Dynasty of Bukhara. by Peter Donovan. Retrieved: 16 July 2017.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 钱伯泉. 准噶尔汗国的普尔钱研究. 西部蒙古论坛. 2011, (2): 7–18. 
  4. ^ Eric R. Schena, “The Influence of Islamic Coins on the Russian Monetary System: An Introduction[永久失效連結]” As-Sikka: The Online Journal of The Islamic Coins Group, 1, no. 2 (1999-2000), August 2004
  5. ^ Greece xiv. Greek Loanwords in Medieval New Persian. Encyclopaedia Iranica. 
  6. ^ German A. Fedorov-Davydov The Monetary System of The Golden Horde*. Translated by L. I. Smirnova (Holden). Retrieved: 14 July 2017.

文献[编辑]

  • 林滿紅著,詹慶華等譯:《銀綫:19世紀的世界與中國》(南京:江蘇人民出版社,2011),頁44-45。
  • Uzdennikov V. Coins of Russia (1700—1917): Third edition. Moscow, Collector’s Books; IP Media Inc., 2004 (Узденников В. Монеты России (1700—1917): Издание третье. — М.: Collector’s Books; IP Media Inc., 2004).
  • Album, S. 1998. A Checklist of Islamic Coins, 2nd ed.
  • Bosworth, C. E. 1996. The New Islamic Dynasties. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Bregel, Y. 1988. S.v. “Mangit/Mangits” in Encyclopaedia of Islam, new ed., 6: 417-419.
  • Burnasheva, R. 1967. Monety Bukharskogo Khanstva pri Mangytakh: Epigrafika Vostoka, 18: 113-128. 4 plates, 3 tables. (Shah Murad, Haydar Tora, and Husayn).
  • Burnasheva, R. 1972. Monety Bukharskogo Khanstva pri Mangytakh: Epigrafika Vostoka, 21:69-80. 4 tables (Nasr Allah, Muzaffar, ʿAbd al-Ahad, and ʿAlim Khan).
  • Davidovich, E. A. 1964. Istoriia Monetnogo Dela Srednei Azii XVII-XVIII vv. [Gold and Silver of the Janids]. Dushanbe.
  • Fedorov, M. 2002. “Money circulation under the Janids and Manghits of Bukhara, and the Khans of Khoqand and Khiva.” Supplement to ONS Newsletter 171.
  • Kennedy, H., ed. 2002. An Historical Atlas of Islam. Brill.
  • Krause, C. L., and C. Mishler. 2002. Standard Catalog of World Coins, 1701-1800, 3rd ed.
  • Krause, C. L., and C. Mishler. 2004. Standard Catalog of World Coins, 1801-1900, 4th ed.
  • Krause, C. L., and C. Mishler. 2005. Standard Catalog of World Coins, 32th ed.
  • Lane-Poole, S. 1882. The Coinage of Bukhara in the British Museum: The Mangit Dynasty, 74-85. (No AE coins listed).
  • Torrey, C. C. 1950. “Gold coins of Khokand and Bukhara.” Numismatic Notes and Monographs 117.