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普遍文法

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普遍文法Universal grammar,縮寫為 UG),又譯為普遍語法,一種語言學理論,最有名的提倡者為喬姆斯基。這個理論認為在人類能夠學習到各種文法的普遍能力,是被內建在大腦中的。它被用來解釋語言習得的一般過程,說明兒童在發展語言時,使用同一個法則,來學習不同的語言。

這個想法最早可以追溯到英國的哲學家培根。最早提出這個理論的語言學家,是喬姆斯基薩丕爾、與理查德·蒙塔古

培根及早期哲學家[编辑]

 

喬姆斯基的理論[编辑]

20世纪80年代初,乔姆斯基和其他一些语言学家提出了普遍语法理论,也称为原则与参数理论。

喬姆斯基認為,人類的大腦,只使用幾組固定而且有限的規則,來組織語言。因此,他假設所有的語言,在底層都擁有相同的文法結構。這幾組有限的規則,被稱為普遍文法(universal grammar)。

他们认为,普遍语法是人类所特有的语言知识体系,存在于正常人的大脑中。根据这一原则和参数体系,普遍语法包括一套普遍原则,利用这些原则,可以不断合成短语,同时也可限制移动α原则过于强大;普遍语法还含有一系列参数,这些参数可以帮助和指导普遍原则更好地操作。

參考文獻[编辑]

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