曼達安教

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曼達安教現代曼達安語英语Mandaic language:מנדעיותא Mandaʻiūtā阿拉伯語مندائية‎‎ Mandāʼīyah)是一個諾斯底主義宗教[1],信仰該教的民族稱作曼達安人,其擁有強烈的二元世界觀,崇敬亞當亞伯塞特以挪士挪亞閃姆亞蘭英语Aram, son of Shem以及視施洗者約翰為最後一位先知,並拒絕承認亞伯拉罕摩西耶稣的先知地位。Manda在曼達安語中代表"知識"。[2][3]

歷史[编辑]

大多數的學者都認為曼達安教歷史早於基督教,不過也有部分學者認為曼達安出現時間晚於基督教創立。[4]曼達安人在西元一世紀時從南黎凡特遷徙至美索不達米亞,他們是閃族人,使用東部亞拉姆語的其中一支方言曼達安語,他們的起源可能與納巴泰人有密切關聯。[5]

分布[编辑]

在2003年美軍入侵伊拉克之前,曼達安人主要居住在伊拉克[6],以及部分在伊朗;美軍佔領伊拉克後,許多伊斯蘭極端團體的暴力攻擊使得曼達安人逃離伊拉克[7],至2007年伊拉克僅剩約5,000人[6];逃離的曼達安人主要是遷往伊朗和伊拉克北部,小部分移民至敘利亞約旦,也有部分獲得難民庇護至瑞典澳洲美國等西方國家。目前全球約有 60,000至70,000名曼達安人。[8]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen, The Mandaeans: ancient texts and modern people (PDF), Oxford University Press, 2002, ISBN 9780195153859 
  2. ^ Rudolph, Kurt. Mandaeism. BRILL. 1978: 15. ISBN 9789004052529. In some texts, however, it is said that Anoš and Manda ḏHayyē appeared in Jerusalem together with Jesus Christ (Mšiha), and exposed him as a lying prophet. This tradition can be explained by an anti-Christian concept, which is also found in Mandaeism, but, according to several scholars, it contains scarcely any traditions of historical events. Because of the strong dualism in Mandaeism, between body and soul, great attention is paid to the "deliverance" of the soul 
  3. ^ The Light and the Dark: Dualism in ancient Iran, India, and China Petrus Franciscus Maria Fontaine - 1990 "Although it shows Jewish and Christian influences, Mandaeism was hostile to Judaism and Christianity. Mandaeans spoke an East-Aramaic language in which 'manda' means 'knowledge'; this already is sufficient proof of the connection of Mandaeism with the Gnosis...
  4. ^ Etudes mithriaques 1978 p545 Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin "The conviction of the leading Mandaean scholars – E. S. Drower, Kurt Rudolph, Rudolph Macuch – that Mandaeanism had a pre-Christian origin rests largely upon the subjective evaluation of parallels between Mandaean texts and the Gospel of John."
  5. ^ Hämeen-Anttila, Jaakko. The Last Pagans of Iraq: Ibn Waḥshiyya and His Nabatean Agriculture. Boston: BRILL. 2006: 11. ISBN 9789004150102. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 "Save the Gnostics" by Nathaniel Deutsch, October 6, 2007, New York Times.
  7. ^ Iraq's Mandaeans 'face extinction', Angus Crawford, BBC, March 4, 2007.
  8. ^ Iraqi minority group needs U.S. attention 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2007-10-25., Kai Thaler, Yale Daily News, March 9, 2007.

外部連結[编辑]

  • 曼達安聯盟 – 統整全球曼達安人事務的國際組織,提供英語與阿拉伯語資訊。