# 月球軌道

（這是與地球的最小距離）
363,229 km（225,700 mi）平均
(356400370400 km)

（這是與地球的最大距離）
405,400 km（251,900 mi）平均
(404000406700 km)

(0.026–0.077)[5]

18.5996年
8.8504年

·

## 參考資料

1. ^ The geometric mean distance in the orbit (of ELP) which is the semimajor axis of the Moon's elliptical orbit via Kepler's laws
2. ^ M. Chapront-Touzé; J. Chapront. The lunar ephemeris ELP-2000. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 1983, 124: 54. Bibcode:1983A&A...124...50C.
3. ^ The constant in the ELP expressions for the distance, which is the mean distance averaged over time
4. ^ M. Chapront-Touzé; J. Chapront. ELP2000-85: a semi-analytical lunar ephemeris adequate for historical times. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 1988, 190: 351. Bibcode:1988A&A...190..342C.
5. Meeus, Jean, Mathematical Astronomy Morsels, Richmond, VA: Willmann-Bell: 11–12, 22–23, 1997, ISBN 0-943396-51-4
6. ^ Seidelmann, P. Kenneth (编), Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, University Science Books: 696, 701, 1992, ISBN 0-935702-68-7
7. ^ 反正弦視差ɑ/sin π傳統上是月球中心到地球中心的平均距離，此處的α是地球的赤道半徑，和 π是月亮在“α”兩端之間的視差[5]。1976年國際天文學聯合會的天文常數中有三個是“月球與地球的平均距離”384400 公里，"在平均距離的赤道水平視差" 3422.608″，和"地球赤道半徑" 6,378.14 公里[6]
8. ^ Lang, Kenneth R. (2011), The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press.
9. ^ Moon Fact Sheet. NASA. [2014-01-08]. （原始内容存档于2008-12-16）.
10. Martin C. Gutzwiller. Moon-Earth-Sun: The oldest three-body problem. Reviews of Modern Physics. 1998, 70 (2): 589–639. Bibcode:1998RvMP...70..589G. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.70.589.
11. ^ Peter Goldreich. History of the Lunar Orbit. Reviews of Geophysics. Nov 1966, 4 (4): 411. Bibcode:1966RvGSP...4..411G. doi:10.1029/RG004i004p00411. Jihad Touma & Jack Wisdom. Evolution of the Earth-Moon system. The Astronomical Journal. Nov 1994, 108: 1943. Bibcode:1994AJ....108.1943T. doi:10.1086/117209.
12. ^ Kaveh Pahlevan & Alessandro Morbidelli. Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination. Nature. Nov 26, 2015, 527 (7579): 492–494. Bibcode:2015Natur.527..492P. PMID 26607544. S2CID 4456736. . doi:10.1038/nature16137.
13. ^ Jacob Aron. Flying gold knocked the moon off course and ruined eclipses. New Scientist. Nov 28, 2015 [2022-07-03]. （原始内容存档于2022-09-30）.
14. ^ View of the Moon. U. of Arkansas at Little Rock. [May 9, 2016]. （原始内容存档于2022-06-23）.
15. ^ Calculated from arcsin(0.25°/1.543°)/90° times 173 days, since the angular radius of the Sun is about 0.25°.
16. ^ Moonlight helps plankton escape predators during Arctic winters. New Scientist. Jan 16, 2016 [2022-07-03]. （原始内容存档于2016-01-30）.
17. ^ The periods are calculated from orbital elements, using the rate of change of quantities at the instant J2000. The J2000 rate of change equals the coefficient of the first-degree term of VSOP polynomials. In the original VSOP87 elements, the units are arcseconds(”) and Julian centuries. There are 1,296,000” in a circle, 36525 days in a Julian century. The sidereal month is the time of a revolution of longitude λ with respect to the fixed J2000 equinox. VSOP87 gives 1732559343.7306” or 1336.8513455 revolutions in 36525 days–27.321661547 days per revolution. The tropical month is similar, but the longitude for the equinox of date is used. For the anomalistic year, the mean anomaly (λ-ω) is used (equinox does not matter). For the draconic month, (λ-Ω) is used. For the synodic month, the sidereal period of the mean Sun (or Earth) and the Moon. The period would be 1/(1/m-1/e). VSOP elements from Simon, J.L.; Bretagnon, P.; Chapront, J.; Chapront-Touzé, M.; Francou, G.; Laskar, J. Numerical expressions for precession formulae and mean elements for the Moon and planets. Astronomy and Astrophysics. February 1994, 282 (2): 669. Bibcode:1994A&A...282..663S.
18. ^ Jean Meeus, Astronomical Algorithms (Richmond, VA: Willmann-Bell, 1998) p 354. From 1900–2100, the shortest time from one new moon to the next is 29 days, 6 hours, and 35 min, and the longest 29 days, 19 hours, and 55 min.
19. ^ J.B. Zirkir. The Science of Ocean Waves. Johns Hopkins University Press. 2013: 264. ISBN 9781421410784.
20. ^ Williams, James G.; Boggs, Dale H. Secular tidal changes in lunar orbit and Earth rotation. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. 2016, 126 (1): 89–129. Bibcode:2016CeMDA.126...89W. ISSN 0923-2958. S2CID 124256137. doi:10.1007/s10569-016-9702-3 （英语）.
21. ^ Williams, George E. Geological constraints on the Precambrian history of Earth's rotation and the Moon's orbit. Reviews of Geophysics. 2000, 38 (1): 37–60. Bibcode:2000RvGeo..38...37W. doi:10.1029/1999RG900016.
22. ^ Webb, David J. Tides and the evolution of the Earth-Moon system. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. 1982, 70 (1): 261–271. Bibcode:1982GeoJ...70..261W. .
23. ^ C.D. Murray; S.F. Dermott. Solar System Dynamics. Cambridge University Press. 1999: 184.
24. ^ Dickinson, Terence. From the Big Bang to Planet X. Camden East, Ontario: Camden House. 1993: 79–81. ISBN 0-921820-71-2.
25. ^
26. The reference by H. L. Vacher (2001) (details separately cited in this list) describes this as 'convex outward', whereas older references such as "The Moon's Orbit Around the Sun, Turner, A. B. Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Vol. 6, p. 117, 1912JRASC...6..117T页面存档备份，存于互联网档案馆）"; and "H Godfray, Elementary Treatise on the Lunar Theory" describe the same geometry by the words concave to the sun.
27. ^ Seidelmann, P. Kenneth (编), Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, University Science Books: 701, 1992, ISBN 0-935702-68-7
28. The Orbit of the Moon around the Sun is Convex!. [2022-04-14]. （原始内容存档于31 March 2004）.
29. ^ The Moon Always Veers Toward the Sun at MathPages