東北棕熊

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東北棕熊
如何讀生物分類框
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保护状况
科学分类 编
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 脊索动物门 Chordata
纲: 哺乳纲 Mammalia
目: 食肉目 Carnivora
科: 熊科 Ursidae
属: 熊属 Ursus
种: 棕熊 U. arctos
亚种: 東北棕熊 U. a. lasiotus
三名法
Ursus arctos lasiotus
Gray, 1867[2]
異名

baikalensis Ognev, 1924
cavifrons (Heude, 1901)
ferox Temminck, 1844
macneilli Lydekker, 1909
melanarctos Heude, 1898
yesoensis Lydekker, 1897

東北棕熊(學名:Ursus arctos lasiotus),又名烏蘇里棕熊东北马熊,是棕熊的一個亞種,分佈于西伯利亞、朝鮮半島、中國東北和北海道,與堪察加棕熊相似,但毛色更黑、頭骨更長。其分佈于北海道的種群有時會單獨列為一個亞種,即日本棕熊Ursus arctos yesoensis)。它是體型較大的棕熊之一,最大的東北棕熊個頭體重超過400公斤,堪比阿拉斯加棕熊[3]

習性[编辑]

頭骨

東北棕熊食譜很雜,它以各類植物漿果、根莖、種子和小型、大型動物為食,甚至也吃螞蟻[4]

東北虎有時會捕食東北棕熊,但這種情況很少出現[5][6]。此外,東北虎捕食的一般是幼熊,但也有東北虎襲擊冬眠的成年雌性東北棕熊的記錄[7][8][9]。1944-1959年,俄羅斯遠東地區共錄下32起東北虎襲擊東北棕熊的案例[10][11][12]

1915年12月,日本北海道發生三毛別棕熊襲擊事件,造成7人死亡、3人重傷,為日本史上最嚴重的野生動物攻擊事件。

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ McLellan, B.N.; Servheen, C. & Huber, D. Ursus arctos. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 2008 [27 January 2009]. 
  2. ^ Gray, J. E. Note on Ursus lasiotus, a hairy-eared bear from North China. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Ser. 3. 1867, 20 (118): 301. doi:10.1080/00222936708694139. 
  3. ^ Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol.II Part 1a, SIRENIA AND CARNIVORA (Sea cows; Wolves and Bears), V.G Heptner and N.P Naumov editors, Science Publishers, Inc. USA. 1998. ISBN 1-886106-81-9
  4. ^ Onoyama, Keiichi. Ants as prey of the Yezo brown bear Ursus arctos yesoensis with consideration on its feeding habits (PDF). Res. Bull. Obihiro University (Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine). 1987-11-16, 15: 313–318 [2009-05-05]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2011-07-22). 
  5. ^ Seryodkin; 等. Relationship between tigers, brown bears, and Himalayan black bears. Tigers of Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik: Ecology and Conservation. 2005: 156–163. 
  6. ^ Geptner, V. G., Sludskii, A. A. (1972). Mlekopitaiuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Vysšaia Škola, Moskva. (In Russian; English translation: Heptner, V. G.; Sludskii, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; (1992). the Soviet Union. Volume II, Part 2: Carnivora (Hyaenas and Cats). Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation, Washington DC). Pp. 95–202.
  7. ^ Frasef, A. Feline Behaviour and Welfare. CABI. 2012: 72–77. ISBN 978-1-84593-926-7. 
  8. ^ Prynn, David. Amur tiger. Russian Nature Press. 2004: 115. 
  9. ^ V.G. Heptner and N.P. Naumov. Mammals of the Soviet Union. Vol 2 IIa 1998. New Delhi, India: Amerind Publishing. p671
  10. ^ Mammals of the Soviet Union Volume 2, by V.G Heptner & A.A. Sludskii, p177
  11. ^ Seryodkin, I. V., J. M. Goodrich, A. V. Kostyrya, B. O. Schleyer, E. N. Smirnov, L. L. Kerley, and D. G. Miquelle (2005). "Relationship between tigers, brown bears, and Himalayan black bears". pp. 95-202 in D. G. Miquelle, E. N. Smirnov, and J. M. Goodrich (eds.), Tigers of Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik: Ecology and Conservation. Vladivostok, Russia: PSP.
  12. ^ Table 1 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. Location, physical status, size and circumstances of deaths of Amur tiger males in the Russian Far East, 1970-1994.

外部連接[编辑]