^ 1.01.1Re-examination of the “Chinese nationalism” and Categorization of the Chinese in Malaya: The Case of the Chinese in Penang, 1890s-1910s by SHINOZAKI Kaori, Ph.D. student, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences University of Tokyo firstname.lastname@example.org presented at The Penang Story – International Conference 2002, 18-21 April 2002, The City Bayview Hotel, Penang, Malaysia (Organisers: The Penang Heritage Trust & STAR Publications)
^Rites of Belonging: Memory, Modernity, and Identity in a Malaysian Chinese Community By Jean DeBernardi, Jean Elizabeth DeBernardi, Published by Stanford University Press, 2004 ISBN 0804744866, ISBN 9780804744867 p.
^Chinese Epigraphic Materials in Malaysia: Collected, Annotated, and Edited by Wolfgang Franke and Chen Tieh Fan Published by University of Malaysia Press, 1982 (v.1-2), pp. 799, 802, 803
^Historical Personalities of Penang By Historical Personalities of Penang Committee, Published by Historical Personalities of Penang Committee, 1986; p. 47
^Pioneer Businessman by Clarence Y K Ngui, published by Malaysian Business, Oct 16, 2003
^Records and Recollections (1889-1934): Chinese Women, Prostitution & a Welfare Organisation By Neil Jin Keong Khor, Keat Siew Khoo, Izrin Muaz Md. Adnan Published by Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 2004; p. 57
^U.S. National Archives 1833-1906: June 23, 1905, July 4, 1905.
^The Chinese Boycott: A Social Movement in Singapore and Malaya in the Early Twentieth Century by WONG Sin Kiong published in Southeast Asian Studies, Vo1.36, No.2, September 1998