欧洲煤钢共同体

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欧洲联盟历史
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Portal-puzzle.svg 歐洲聯盟主题
欧洲煤钢共同体最初的成员国
欧洲煤钢共同体旗帜

欧洲煤钢共同体(英語:European Coal and Steel Community,簡稱ECSC;法語:Communauté européenne du charbon et de l’acier,簡稱CECA;德語:Europäische Gemeinschaft für Kohle und Stahl,簡稱EGKS)1951年4月18日通过《巴黎条约》成立,1952年7月23日生效。根据条约规定,成员国毋須交纳关税而直接取得的生产原料。

欧洲煤钢共同体的缔约国有法国西德意大利比利时荷兰卢森堡。欧洲煤钢共同体是欧洲漫长历史上出现的第一个拥有超国家权限的机构。成员国的政府第一次放弃了各自的部分主权,并将这些主权的行使交给一个独立于成员国的高级机构。条约的直接目的是规范贸易和工业,但更大的目标是跨国合作。[1]《巴黎条约》生效期限为50年,因此,2002年7月23日之后,欧洲煤钢共同体不再存在。

建立欧洲煤钢共同体的巴黎条约源于法国时任外交部长罗伯特·舒曼于1950年5月9日首次提出的舒曼计划。计划中,舒曼向德国总理康拉德·阿登纳建议共同掌管成员国煤钢工业,并免除相关关税,隨即獲後者同意。这意味着二战结束后,正被英国占领并受战胜国委员会控制的鲁尔地区将获重新发展的机会,而当时該地区大量的工业设备正在拆除。

巴黎条约计划的主要目标是通过共同掌管煤和钢这些重要的战争物资,实现互相控制,以保障欧洲内部的和平,也為二战后重建所需的重要生产资料提供保障。他的競爭者有英國主導的欧洲自由贸易联盟

欧洲煤钢共同体於1965年4月8日通过合并条约与欧洲经济共同体欧洲原子能共同体合并。

第二次世界大战结束后,欧洲主权国家在越来越多的领域缔结了条约,从而在所谓的欧洲一体化项目或欧洲重建 (法語:la construction européenne) 中合作和协调政策(或共同主权)。下列时间表概括了欧洲联盟 (EU) 的成立过程和联合的主体框架。20世纪50年代根据舒曼计划成立了欧洲各共同体(EC),而在欧洲各共同体实际上停止运作后欧盟从中继承了其许多责任。

注释:
  S: 签名
  F: 生效
  T: 终止
  E: 过期
    事实上废弃
  关于欧共体/欧盟框架:
   事实上在其中
   在外边
                  Flag of Europe.svg 欧洲联盟 (EU) [欧洲联盟历史]  
Flag of Europe.svg 欧洲各共同体 (EC) 欧盟三支柱
歐洲原子能共同體 [继续]      
Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 6 Star Version.svg / Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 9 Star Version.svg / Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 10 Star Version.svg / Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 12 Star Version.svg 欧洲煤钢共同体 (ECSC)  
    欧洲经济共同体 (EEC)    
            申根区 欧洲经济共同体
TREVI英语TREVI 刑事領域警務與司法合作 (JHA, 欧盟三支柱  
  Flag of NATO.svg 北大西洋公约组织 (NATO) [History of NATO英语History of NATO] 刑事領域警務與司法合作 (PJCC, 欧盟三支柱)
Flag of France.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
英法關係
[Western Union Defence Organisation英语Western Union Defence Organisation Western_Union_(alliance)#Cannibalisation_and_marginalisation英语Western_Union_(alliance)#Cannibalisation_and_marginalisation to 北大西洋公约组织] European Political Co-operation英语European Political Co-operation (EPC)   共同外交与安全政策
(CFSP, 欧盟三支柱)
Flag of the Western Union.svg Western Union (alliance)英语Western Union (alliance) (WU) Flag of the Western European Union (1993-1995).svg / Flag of the Western European Union.svg 西歐聯盟 (WEU) [西歐聯盟 defined following the WEU's 1984 Rome Declaration英语Rome Declaration 西歐聯盟 to the 欧洲联盟]
     
[Social, cultural tasks History of the Common Security and Defence Policy#1954 – 1970: A dormant WEU is established英语History of the Common Security and Defence Policy#1954 – 1970: A dormant WEU is established to 欧洲委员会] [欧洲委员会]                
    Flag of Europe.svg 欧洲委员会 (CoE)
Treaty of Dunkirk英语Treaty of Dunkirk¹
S: 4 March 1947
F: 8 September 1947
E: 8 September 1997
布魯塞爾條約 (1948年)¹
S: 17 March 1948
F: 25 August 1948
T: 30 June 2011
歐洲委員會法規 and 北大西洋公约 treaties¹
S: 5 May/4 April 1949
F: 3 August/24 August 1949
Paris treaties: 巴黎条约 (1951年) and 欧洲防务共同体
S: 18 April 1951/27 May 1952
F: 23 July 1952/—
E: 23 July 2002/—
布魯塞爾條約 (1948年)¹
S: 23 October 1954
F: 6 May 1955
Rome treaties: 羅馬條約² and Euratom Treaty英语Euratom Treaty
S: 25 March 1957
F: 1 January 1958
合并条约³
S: 8 April 1965
F: 1 July 1967
Davignon report英语Davignon report
S: 27 October 1970
TREVI英语TREVI
S: 2 December 1975
單一歐洲法案 (SEA)
S: 17/28 February 1986
F: 1 July 1987
申根公约 and 申根区
S: 14 June 1985/19 June 1990
F: 26 March 1995
马斯特里赫特条约²,
S: 7 February 1992
F: 1 November 1993
阿姆斯特丹条约
S: 2 October 1997
F: 1 May 1999
尼斯条约
S: 26 February 2001
F: 1 February 2003
里斯本条约
S: 13 December 2007
F: 1 December 2009
¹Although not EU treaties per se, these treaties affected the History of the Common Security and Defence Policy英语History of the Common Security and Defence Policy of the 共同安全与防务政策, a main part of the CFSP. The Franco-British alliance established by the Dunkirk Treaty was de facto superseded by WU. The CFSP pillar was bolstered by some of the security structures that had been established within the remit of the 1955 布魯塞爾條約 (1948年) (MBT). The Brussels Treaty was 西歐聯盟 in 2011, consequently dissolving the WEU, as the mutual defence clause that the Lisbon Treaty provided for EU was considered to render the WEU superfluous. The EU thus de facto superseded the WEU.
²The treaties of Maastricht and Rome form the EU's 歐洲聯盟基本條約, and are also referred to as the Treaty on European Union英语Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union英语Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), respectively. They are amended by secondary treaties.
³The 欧洲各共同体 obtained common institutions and a shared 法律主體 (i.e. ability to e.g. sign treaties in their own right).
⁴Between the EU's founding in 1993 and consolidation in 2009, the union consisted of 欧盟三支柱, the first of which were the European Communities. The other two pillars consisted of additional areas of cooperation that had been added to the EU's remit.
⁵The consolidation meant that the EU inherited the European Communities' 法律主體 and that the 欧盟三支柱, resulting in the EU framework as such covering all policy areas. Executive/legislative power in each area was instead determined by a distribution of competencies between 歐洲聯盟機構 and 欧洲联盟成员国. This distribution, as well as treaty provisions for policy areas in which unanimity is required and Double majority#European Union英语Double majority#European Union is possible, reflects the depth of EU integration as well as the EU's partly 超國家主義 (國際關係) and partly 政府間主義 nature.
⁶Plans to establish a Treaty establishing the European Political Community英语Treaty establishing the European Political Community (EPC) were shelved following the French failure to ratify the 欧洲防务共同体 (EDC). The EPC would have combined the ECSC and the EDC.

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  1. ^ Nicholas Herrmann. Full Fathom Five. Places Journal. [2019-01-01]. (原始内容存档于2019-01-01).