正黏液病毒科

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正黏液病毒科
Influenza virus.png
病毒分類
組: Group V(-)ssRNA
科: 正黏液病毒科Orthomyxoviridae

甲型流行性感冒病毒属
Influenzavirus A
乙型流行性感冒病毒属
Influenzavirus B
丙型流行性感冒病毒属
Influenzavirus C
传染性鲑鱼贫血病毒属 Isavirus
托高土病毒属 Thogotovirus

正黏液病毒科Orthomyxoviridae,希臘文Orthos有「正確,直」之意;myxo有「粘液」之意[1])屬於負鏈RNA病毒,共有六個屬,此科的病毒可感染脊椎動物。造成流行性感冒的病毒正是正黏液病毒科的一員,屬於負鏈RNA病毒。正黏液病毒科可分為四屬病毒,三屬為流行性感冒病毒,分為A型、B型及C型流行性感冒病毒,以及传染性鲑鱼贫血病毒屬和托高土病毒屬。流行性感冒病毒可以感染人、馬、豬及禽類(參見禽流感),其中A型流行性感冒病毒可以感染人、鳥類,而B型流行性感冒,僅可感染人類。C型流行性感冒病毒僅感染人、豬,造成之病害較少。 A型及B型流行性感冒病毒之感染力非常強,傳播速度非常快,可以稱之為最重要的疾病之一,感染範圍遍及世界各大洲。水禽類,尤其是候鳥,為各不同血清型病毒之帶原者及病毒重組之動物。传染性鲑鱼贫血病毒則鮭魚,托高土病毒則可以感染脊椎動物非脊椎動物,如蚊子海蝨[2][3][4]

本科中有三屬為流感病毒,其分類方法依照其表面NPM抗原相異性:

分類[编辑]

系統分類學,此科屬於RNA病毒ssRNA(-),其關聯物種及血清型如下表所示:

正黏液病毒屬別、種及血清型
(*為模式種 血清型或亞型 寄主
A型流感病毒 A型流感病毒* H1N1H1N2H2N2H3N1H3N2H3N8
H5N1H5N2H5N3H5N8H5N9H7N1
H7N2H7N3H7N4H7N7H7N9H9N2
H10N7
,和
B型流感病毒 B型流感病毒* Victoria, Yamagata[5] 人、海豹
C型流感病毒 C型流感病毒* 人、豬、狗
传染性鲑鱼贫血病毒 传染性鲑鱼贫血病毒* 大西洋鮭魚
托高土病毒英语Thogotovirus 托高土病毒* 蚊子哺乳類(包含人)
多里病毒英语Dhori Virus Batken Virus英语Dhori Virus英语Jos Virus英语
Quarja Viruses [6]
Quaranfil Virus英语Johnston Atoll Virus英语

病毒學[编辑]

形態學[编辑]

流感病毒的結構。病毒表面上有血球凝集素(HA)和神經氨酸酶(NA)兩種蛋白。紅色的螺旋是病毒的RNA,且上有核糖核酸蛋白(RNPs)。

流行性感冒病毒係依其基質蛋白(matrix protein)及內部核糖核蛋白(ribonucleoprotein;可溶性抗原)之抗原特性而分為A、B及C三種,外層蛋白包括血球凝集素(hemagglutinin,HA)及神經氨酸酶(neuraminidase, NA)兩種,也為組成流行性感冒的抗原成份。流行性感冒病毒依其血球凝集素及神經胺酸酶之抗原性不同可再分為數種亞型,現今已知血球凝集素已有十六種(H1-H16),神經胺酸酶則有九種。C型流行性感冒之化學性及結構性與 A 及 B 型流行性感冒皆十分相似,但它缺少神經胺酸酶,只有血球凝集素酶一種,在病毒表面上具有一特殊的接受器(receptor),使病毒表面呈蜂窩狀,而 A 型及 B 型流行性感冒很少呈蜂窩狀。

流行性感冒病毒在電子顯微鏡下有絲狀及多形性二種,但大部份為多形性,負染色時常為 70 - 120 nm 之圓形顆粒。新分離的流行性感冒病毒顆粒,其大小及形狀皆不一致,絲狀者經常可長達幾百奈米(nanometer),甚至長達 4,000 nm,有時可以見到一些奇形怪狀者,流行性感冒病毒與其它病毒不同的是它的整個病毒表面有約略等距間隔的突起,一種為長約 10 - 14 nm,寬約 4 nm ,橫切面為三角形,含有血球凝集素的桿狀突起,另一為長約 9 nm,寬約 5 nm,含有神經胺酸酶的圓柱狀突起。

在針狀突起層下面為一包圍基質蛋白及核酸蛋白之脂質被膜, A型流行性感冒病毒之核蛋白衣(nucleocapsid)含有與病毒 RNA 相連的 RNA 聚合酶, B 型及 C 型流行性感冒病毒之核蛋白衣亦可能有相同的結構。病毒封套(envelope)厚度為 6 至 8 nm,當封套破裂或染色液滲入時,可能會看到核酸呈摺疊狀平行的條狀結構。以清潔劑處理也可能會得到大小不等的極度卷曲形狀的核蛋白衣。

C 型流行性感冒病毒外型與 A或B型結構大致相同,不容易區分,有時可見病毒表面有六角型的結構,通常在電子顯微鏡下,同一視野中可能會同時見到這兩種不同形狀的病毒顆粒。

血球凝集素可附著於不同動物的紅血球,而使紅血球凝集,而神經胺酸酶與病毒離開寄主細胞有關,神經胺酸酶會分解膜上的神經胺酸,而使病毒由寄主細胞脫離感染其他細胞。 C 型流行性感冒病毒也含有可破壞流行性感冒接受器的酶,但它與神經胺酸酶不同。

流行病學[编辑]

台灣於1972年時首次發現家禽流行性感冒病毒感染症,血清型為H6N1 ,現今在台灣H血清型共十型 (H1,2,3,4,6,7,8,10,11,14), N血清型共八型 (N1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9) ,其組合共十五種。A型流行性感冒病毒對豬而言,可造成嚴重的增殖性壞死性肺炎。

參考文獻[编辑]

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