沒有國家的民族

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沒有國家的民族是指在任何國家都不是多數族裔的民族。這一詞彙是一個領土收復主義用詞,意指該民族應該擁有國家。沒有國家的民族的人們既可能是其所在國的國民,也可能被其所在國家剝奪國民權。且這些民族通常無法以國家身份參加國際體育賽事(如世足賽和奧運會)和國際社會(如聯合國)。也有人稱這些民族為第四世界[1]。沒有國家的民族既可能橫跨多個國家(如庫德人),也有可能聚居在一個國家的部分地區(如緬甸羅興亞人)。一些沒有國家的民族在歷史上曾有國家或實際上獨立,但被另一個國家吞併。許多沒有國家的民族都遭到歧視,甚至是種族清洗,也引發戰爭和分裂主義運動。一些沒有國家的民族現在已經成為民族國家(如南斯拉夫解體後形成的各國家)。

民族列表[编辑]

民族 旗帜 语言 主要宗教 人口 所在洲 国家 居住地 领土收复运动 注释
库尔德人
Flag of Kurdistan.svg
库尔德语 伊斯兰教 with minorities of Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Yazdânism Deism and Agnosticism 40,000,000–46,000,000[2] 亚洲 伊拉克, 土耳其, 伊朗叙利亚 库尔德斯坦 Kurdish nationalism, Kurdish–Turkish conflict, Kurdish-Iranian conflict, Iraqi–Kurdish conflict, and Kurdish–Syrian conflict Regional autonomy in Iraqi Kurdistan and Rojava.
Yoruba people
Flag of the Yoruba people.svg
Yoruba language Christianity, Islam 35,000,000[3][4] Africa Nigeria, Benin and Togo Yorubaland Oodua Peoples Congress
Igbo people
Flag of Biafra.svg
Igbo language Christianity (primarily Roman Catholicism with significant Protestant minorities 30,000,000[5] Africa Nigeria Biafra Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, Indigenous People of Biafra Attempted secession from Nigeria in 1967 sparked the Nigerian Civil war
Rhinelanders[6]
Flag of North Rhine-Westphalia.svg
West Central German Christianity (Catholicism) 20,000,000 (est.) Europe Germany Rhineland Rhenish nationalism, Rhenish Republic In the past favoured separatism, currently calling for greater autonomy.
Occitan people
Flag of Occitania (with star).svg
Occitan, French Roman Catholicism 16,000,000 Europe France, Italy and Spain (Val d'Aran) Occitania Occitan nationalism (Occitan Party, Partit de la Nacion Occitana, Libertat) seek self-determination, greater autonomy or total secession from France.
Assamese people
Flag of United Liberation Front of Asom.svg
Assamese language Hinduism 15,000,000[7] Asia India Assam Assam separatist movements, ULFA Insurgency in Northeast India Regional autonomy in Assam.
Uyghur people
Kokbayraq flag.svg
Uyghur language Islam 15,000,000[8] Asia China East Turkestan Irredentism is politically fragmented (East Turkestan Liberation Organization, East Turkestan independence movement) Limited autonomy in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.
Palestinian people[9]
Flag of Palestine - long triangle.svg
Arabic Islam (majority), Christianity 13,000,000 Asia West Bank, Gaza Strip, Jordan, Israel, Syria, Lebanon Palestine Palestinian nationalism (PLO) seek self-determination from occupying powers.
Zulu people
Conjectural flag of Zululand (1884-1897) by Roberto Breschi taken from The South African Flag Book by A.P.Burgers.png
Zulu language Christianity, Zulu religion 12,159,000 Africa South Africa, Lesotho, Zimbabwe, Swaziland KwaZulu-Natal Inkatha Freedom Party Limited autonomy in the KwaZulu-Natal region, which maintains a traditional Zulu king.
Bavarians
Flag of Bavaria (lozengy).svg
German, Bavarian Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 12,500,000 Europe Germany Bavaria Bavarian nationalism, Bavaria Party National devolution, further autonomy or total secession from Germany.
Kongo people
Royal banner of Kongo (Afonso I).svg
Kongo language, Lingala, Portuguese, French Christianity (Catholicism and Protestantism), African Traditional Religion 10,000,000 Africa Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Angola Kongo Kongo nationalism, Bundu dia Kongo Historically occupied the independent Kingdom of Kongo.
Baloch people
Flag of Balochistan.png
Balochi Islam 10,000,000[10] Asia Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan Balochistan Balochistan conflict, Baloch nationalism
Kabyle people
Flag-kabyle.svg
Kabyle language, Algerian Arabic Islam 10,000,000[11] Africa Algeria Kabylie Movement for the Autonomy of Kabylie, Provisional Government of Kabylia
Ahwazi Arabs
Flag of Ahwaz.png
Arabic Islam 1,320,000[12] Asia Iran Al Ahwaz Arab separatism in Khuzestan Democratic Solidarity Party of Ahwaz Ahwazi includes 30 tribes which see themselves as a distinct Arab nation.[13] Seek self-determination, greater autonomy or total secession from Iran.
Andalusian people
Flag of Andalucía.svg
Andalusian Spanish Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 9,500,000 Europe Spain Andalucia Andalusian nationalism See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
Puerto Rican people
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg
Spanish, English Christianity (primarily Roman Catholicism) 9,000,000 America United States Puerto Rico Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional Puertorriqueña, Boricua Popular Army, Puerto Rican Independence Party Unincorporated territory of the United States.
Catalans
Flag of Catalonia.svg

Estelada blava.svg
Catalan Roman Catholicism 8,500,000[14] Europe Spain and France Catalan Countries Catalan independence movement, Catalan nationalism See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
Québécois
Flag of Quebec.svg
French language Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 8,215,000 America Canada Quebec Quebec sovereignty movement The total population of the Province of Quebec is 8.2 million, of which over 80% are French speakers.
Mon people
Mon National Party.svg
Mon language Buddhism 8,145,500 Asia Myanmar, Thailand Mon State Mon Nationalism, Mon National Party, All Mon Region Democracy Party Historically occupied the Mon kingdoms
Circassians
Flag of Adygea.svg
Circassian language Islam 8,000,000 Europe Russia Circassia Russo-Circassian War, Circassian nationalism Regional autonomy in Circassia.
Swabians[15]
Flag of Baden-Württemberg (state, lesser arms).svg
Swabian German Christianity (Catholicism, Evangelical Church in Germany (Lutheranism, Calvinism)) 7,500,000 (est.) Europe Germany Swabia (includes Bavarian Swabia) Swabian nationalism, Swabian League See also Schwabenhass
Hong Kong people
Hong Kong Autonomy Movement Flag.svg
Hong Kong Cantonese, Hong Kong English Chinese folk religion 7,184,000 Asia China Hong Kong Hong Kong Autonomy Movement, Hong Kong independence movement Special administrative region with high degree of autonomy.
Karen people
Flag of the Karen National Union.svg
Karen language Christianity, Theravada Buddhism 7,000,000 Asia Myanmar, Thailand Kawthoolei Karen nationalism, Karen National Union, Karen National Liberation Army
Maya peoples Mayan languages Christianity (Catholicism), Maya religion 7,000,000 America Guatemala, Mexico, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador Mesoamerica Pan-Maya movement, Rigoberta Menchú, Zapatista Army of National Liberation Historically occupied the Maya civilization
Volga Tatars
Flag of Tatarstan.svg
Tatar language Islam 7,000,000 Europe Russia Tatarstan All-Tatar Public Center Regional autonomy in Tatarstan.
Tibetan people
Flag of Tibet.svg
Tibetan language Buddhism 7,000,000[16] Asia China Tibet Tibetan independence movement Limited autonomy in the Tibet Autonomous Region.
Indian Gorkhas
Flag of Gurkhaland.svg
Nepali language Hinduism 6,360,000[17] Asia India Gorkhastan Gorkha National Liberation Front, Gorkha Janmukti Morcha Gorkhaland is a proposed state in India demanded by the people of the Darjeeling Hills and the people of Gorkha ethnic origin on the Northern part of West Bengal.
Riffian people
Flag of the Republic of the Rif.svg
Riffian language Islam 6,000,000[18] Africa Morocco and Spain Rif Rif War, Rif Republic 95% of the land is controlled by Morocco with the rest being controlled by the Spanish territories of Ceuta and Melilla as autonomous cities.
Shan people
Flag of the Shan State.svg
Shan language Buddhism 6,000,000 Asia Myanmar Shan State Shan State Army, Declaration of independence in 2005; see also Hso Khan Pha
Kashmiri people
Kashmir independent.svg
Kashmiri language Islam 5,600,000 Asia India, Pakistan and China Kashmir Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir Administered by India (Kashmir Valley, Jammu, Ladakh), Pakistan (Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan) and China (Aksai Chin).
Walloons
Flag of Wallonia.svg
Walloon, French, Picard Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 5,200,000 Europe Belgium Wallonia Partition of Belgium, Walloon Movement Regional autonomy in Wallonia; seeks independence from Belgium or union with France.
Lozi people
Flag of Barotseland.svg
Lozi Christianity 5,153,000 Africa Zambia Barotseland Barotse Patriotic Front[19]
Valencians
Senyera del nacionalisme valencià.svg
Valencian Roman Catholicism[20] 5,111,706 Europe Spain Valencian Community Valencian nationalism See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
Moro people
MNLF flag.svg
Filipino language, other Philippine languages Islam 5,100,000 Asia Philippines Bangsamoro National Liberation Front, Moro Islamic Liberation Front
Kuki-Mizo-Zo-Chin people
Flag of Chin State.svg
Kuki-Chin languages Christianity 5,000,000 Asia Myanmar, Bangladesh, India Mizoram, Zogam and Chin State Mizo National Front, Chin National Front, Kuki National Army, Zomi Revolutionary Army, Zomi nationalism Kuki-Mizo-Zo-Chin are a ethnic group known by different names and speak different dialects.
Scottish people
Flag of Scotland.svg
Scottish Gaelic, Scots, English Christianity 5,000,000 (only Scotland)[21] Europe United Kingdom Scotland Scottish independence Regional autonomy in Scotland.
Sicilians[22]
Sicilian Flag.svg
Sicilian, Italian, Gallo-Italic of Sicily, Arbëresh Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 5,000,000 (only Sicily) Europe Italy Sicily Sicilian nationalism Regional autonomy in Sicily.
Acehnese people
Flag of Free Aceh Movement.svg
Acehnese language Islam 4,200,000[23] Asia Indonesia Aceh Insurgency in Aceh Regional autonomy in Aceh.
Hmong people
Hmong flag.svg
Hmong language Buddhism with native 4,000,000 Asia Laos, China, Vietnam and Thailand Hmong ChaoFa Federated State Insurgency in Laos
Rohingya people
Flag of Rahmanland (Rohingya).png
Rohingya language Islam 3,600,000 Asia Myanmar Rohang State Rohingya conflict The Rohingyas are not recognized as a native ethnic group by Burmese government.[24]
Afrikaners
Afrikaner Vryheidsvlag.svg
Afrikaans Christianity 3,500,000 Africa South Africa and Namibia Volkstaat Afrikaner Nationalism, Freedom Front Afrikaners are an Ethno-racial group. Demand autonomy or total secession from South Africa.
Assyrian people
Flag of the Assyrians.svg
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Turoyo, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic Christianity (Chaldean Catholicism) 3,300,000[25] Asia Syria, Iraq, Iran and Turkey Assyria Assyrian nationalism, Assyrian independence movement Historically occupied the Assyrian empire.
Breton people
Flag of Brittany (Gwenn ha du).svg
Breton, French, Gallo Christianity (principally Roman Catholicism) 3,120,288 Europe France Brittany Breton nationalism Historically occupied the Kingdom of Brittany
Basque people
Flag of the Basque Country.svg
Basque Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 3,000,000[26] Europe France and Spain Basque Country Basque nationalism See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
Iraqi Turkmen people
Flag of Iraq Turkmen FrontVEC.svg
Turkish language, Azerbaijani language Islam 3,000,000 Asia Iraq Turkmeneli Iraqi Turkmen Front Not to be confused with Syrian Turkmen of Latakia or Central Asian Turkmens of Turkmenistan who share only their ethnonym.[27]
Sri Lankan Tamils
Bicolor flag of Tamil Eelam.svg

TigersofTamilEelamFlag.jpg
Tamil language Hinduism (mostly Shaivism) 3,000,000 Asia Sri Lanka Tamil Eelam Sri Lankan Tamil nationalism, Tamil nationalism, LTTE, Sri Lankan Civil War, TGTE, Vaddukoddai Resolution Demand autonomy in North Eastern Province or total secession from Sri Lanka.
Welsh people
Flag of Wales (1959–present).svg
Welsh, English Christianity 3,000,000 Europe United Kingdom Wales Welsh independence, Welsh nationalism, Meibion Glyndŵr, Plaid Cymru Regional autonomy in Wales.
Galician people
Bandeira galega civil.svg
Galician language Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 2,800,000 Europe Spain Galiza Galician nationalism See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain. Historically occupied the Kingdom of Galicia.
Kachin people
Kachin Independence Army flag.svg
Jingpo, Zaiwa, Maru, Lashi, Azi Buddhism, Christianity, Animism 2,750,000 (2002)[28] Asia Myanmar Kachin State Kachin Independence Army, Kachin Independence Organisation, Kachin conflict The tribes of Kachin Hills form the Kachin Nation.
Aragonese people
Flag of Aragon.svg
Aragonese language Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 2,278,000 (Spain only)[29] Europe Spain Aragon Aragonese nationalism See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain. Historically occupied the Kingdom of Aragon.
Meitei people
In manipur1.gif
Meitei language Hinduism 2,500,000 Asia India Manipur UNLF, PLA, Insurgency in Manipur, Anglo-Manipur War Historically occupied the Kingdom of Manipur.
Chechen people
Flag of Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.svg
Chechen language Islam 2,000,000 Europe Russia Chechnya Chechen insurgency, Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Regional autonomy in Chechnya.
Naga people
Unofficial flag of Nagaland.svg
Tibeto-Burman dialects / Nagamese creole Christianity 2,000,000 Asia India Nagaland Naga National Council, Insurgency in Northeast India Regional autonomy in Nagaland.
Northern Irish people[30]
English, Ulster Scots, Irish Christianity (Catholicism and Presbyterianism) 1,810,863 Europe United Kingdom Northern Ireland Ulster nationalism, Ulster Third Way, some factions of the Ulster Defence Association Seeks the independence of Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom without joining the Republic of Ireland.
Alsatians
Flag of Alsace (historical).svg
Alsatian Christianity (primarily Roman Catholicism) ~1,800,000 Europe France Alsace Alsace independence movement, Alsace First, Unser Land National devolution, further autonomy or total secession from France.
Sardinian people[31][32][33][34]
Bandera nacionalista sarda.svg
Sardinian, Corso-Sardinian, Italian, Catalan, Ligurian Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 1,661,521 Europe Italy Sardinia Sardinian nationalism National devolution, further autonomy or total secession from Italy.
Canarian people
Mpaiac.PNG
Guanche language (extinct), Spanish Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 1,600,000 Africa Spain Canary Islands Canarian nationalism National devolution, further autonomy or total secession from Mainland Spain.
Ryukyuan people
Flag of Republic Ryukyu Independists.png
Ryukyuan, Japanese Buddhism 1,600,000[35] Asia Japan Ryukyu Islands Ryukyu independence movement Historically occupied the Ryukyu Kingdom.
Frisians
Flag of Frisia.svg
Frisian, Dutch, German Christianity (Protestantism and Roman Catholicism 1,500,000 Europe Netherlands and Germany Frisia Frisian National Party, Groep fan Auwerk The creation of a new Frisian state.
Tripuri people
Unofficial flag of Tripura.png
Kokborok Hinduism 1,520,000 (2002)[36] Asia India Tripura Tripuri nationalism, All Tripura Tiger Force, National Liberation Front of Tripura Historically occupied the Twipra Kingdom. 1949, Tripuris had a population of 85% in Tripura, 2002 they make up 29% and became a minority in their own homeland.[36]
Bodo people
Bandera Bodoland.svg
Bodo language Bathouism 1,300,000 Asia India Bodoland Bodo nationalism, National Democratic Front of Bodoland National devolution or further autonomy from the India.
Tuareg people
MNLA flag.svg
Tuareg language Islam 1,200,000 Africa Mali and Niger Azawad National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad, Tuareg rebellion (2012), Northern Mali conflict National devolution, further autonomy or total secession from Mali.
Mapuche
Flag of the Mapuches.svg
Mapudungun Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 1,000,000[37] America Argentina and Chile Araucanía Mapuche conflict
Asturian people
Flag of Asturias.svg
Asturian language Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 925,000 (2002)[38] Europe Spain Asturias Asturian nationalism, See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
Silesians
POL województwo śląskie flag.svg
Silesian, Polish, German, Czech Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 900,000 Europe Poland, Czech Republic and Germany Silesia Silesian Autonomy Movement Divided into Upper Silesia and Lower Silesia.
Lezgins
Lezgian flag.svg
Lezgian Islam 800,000+ Europe Russia, Azerbaijan Lezgistan Lezgin Nationalism Unification of the Lezgin people in Azerbaijan and Dagestan (Russia).
Fur people
Flag of Darfur.svg
Fur, Arabic Islam 800,000[39] Africa Sudan Dafur War in Darfur, SLM/A Historically occupied the Sultanate of Darfur.
Māori people
Tino Rangatiratanga Maori sovereignty movement flag.svg
Māori, English Christianity with native 750,000 Oceania New Zealand New Zealand Māori protest movement
Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal languages Christianity (principally Anglicanism and Roman Catholicism) with native 680,000 Oceania Australia Australia Movement is fragmented or focused on specific aboriginal groups
Karakalpaks
Flag of Karakalpakstan.svg
Karakalpak language Islam 620,000 Asia Uzbekistan Karakalpakstan Karakalpak Nationalism Regional autonomy in Karakalpakstan
Friulians
Bandiere dal Friûl.svg
Friulian language Christianity (Catholicism) 530,000[40] Europe Italy Friuli Friulian Front Regional autonomy with special statute in Friuli-Venezia Giulia.
Cornish people
Flag of Cornwall.svg
Cornish, Cornish English Christianity 534,300 (only Cornwall) Europe United Kingdom Cornwall Cornish nationalism, Mebyon Kernow, Cornish Nationalist Party National devolution or further autonomy from the United Kingdom.
Hawaiian people
Kanaka Maoli flag.svg
Hawaiian language Christianity (Catholicism and Protestantism) with native 527,000 Oceania United States Hawaii Hawaiian sovereignty movement Historically occupied the Kingdom of Hawaii.
Moravians
Banner of arms of Moravia.svg
Czech (Moravian) Traditionally Roman Catholicism presently Irreligion 525,000[41][42] Europe Czech Republic and Slovakia Moravia Moravians Historically occupied the Moravian Empire
Kashubians
Kashubian flag.svg
Kashubian Christianity (Roman Catholicism) ~0.5 million (2002–07)[43][44] of which 233,000 as ethnic-national identity (2011) Europe Poland Pomerania Kaszëbskô Jednota Kashubians with Slovincians (extinct) formed the West Slavic tribes of Pomeranians.
Ogoni people
Flag of the Ogoni people.svg
Ogoni language Christianity with native 500,000 Africa Nigeria Ogoniland Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People
Crimean Tatars
Flag of the Crimean Tatar people.svg
Crimean Tatar Islam 500,000 Europe Ukraine Crimea Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People
Tatars in Republic of Crimea
Deportation of the Crimean Tatars
Previously an autonomous republic within Ukraine, after being invaded and annexed by Russia in 2014 the Crimean Tatars are currently seeking autonomy[45]
Sahrawi people[46]
Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg
Hassaniya Arabic (native), Berber languages (native), Modern Standard Arabic (written only), and Spanish (lingua franca) Islam (Sunni Islam (Maliki), Sufism) 500,000[47] Africa Morocco, Algeria, Mauretania Western Sahara Western Sahara conflict, Polisario Front, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied
Yakuts
Flag of Sakha.svg
Yakut language, Russian language Christianity, Shamanism, Tengrism 480,000–510,000 Asia Russia Yakutia Yakut revolt (1918) Regional autonomy in Sakha Republic, Yakut leaders declared Yakutia's sovereignty in 1991 in an attempt to take advantage of the fall of the Soviet Union, though this was unsuccessful[48]
Chams
Bandera Front Alliberament Cham.svg
Cham language Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism 400,000 Asia Vietnam South Central Coast United Front for the Liberation of Oppressed Races, Cham rights movement, Cham today Historically occupied the Champa state. The Cham in Vietnam are only recognized as a minority, and not as an indigenous people by the Vietnamese government despite being indigenous to the region. Vietnamese continue to destroy evidence of Cham culture and artifacts left behind.
Corsican people
Flag of Corsica.svg
Corsican, French, Ligurian Christianity (Roman Catholicism 322,120 Europe France Corsica Corsica Libera Territorial collectivity in France.
Navajo
Navajo flag.svg
Navajo language, Navajo language, Navajo Sign Language Navajo Traditional, Christianity (principally Roman Catholicism) 300,460 America United States Navajo Nation Navajo Wars Regional autonomy in the Navajo Nation.
Tuvans
Tuva flag.png
Tuvan language, Russian language, Mongolian language, Chinese language Tibetan Buddhism, Tengrism 300,000 Asia Russia, Mongolia, China Tuva People's Front "Free Tuva", People's Party of Sovereign Tuva[49] Regional autonomy in Tuva.
Sikkimese people
Flag of Sikkim (1967-1975).svg
Sikkimese language Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity 290,000 Asia India Sikkim Sikkim Bhutia Lepcha Apex Committee Formerly the Kingdom of Sikkim. The Sikkimese people are split among the Lepcha, Limbu and Bhutias In 1990 Sikkimese Nationalist leaders declared the annexation of Sikkim by India to be illegal[50]
Lakota people
Pine Ridge Flag.svg
Lakota, English Christianity with native 170,000[51] America United States Lakotah Sioux Wars, Lakota Freedom Movement Native American reservation politics.
Sami people
Sami flag.svg
Sami languages, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian Christianity 163,400 Europe Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia Sapmi Sámi politics Have their own Parliaments in Norway, Sweden & Finland but Sami groups seek more territorial autonomy.
Inuit
Flag of Greenland.svg
Inuit languages Christianity with native 135,991 America Canada, United States and Denmark Siberia, Alaska, Northern Canada and Greenland Greenland Referendum, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami Semi-autonomous rule in Greenland with autonomy in Denmark.
Pamiris
Pamir flag.jpg
Pamir languages Islam 135,000[52] Asia Tajikistan Badakhshan Pamiri nationalism, Lali Badakhshan party, Tajikistani Civil War Regional autonomy in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region
Acadians
Flag of Acadia.svg
Acadian French, American English Catholicism, minority irreligious 102,250 (Maine and Atlantic Canada only) North America United States and Canada Acadia There have been several attempts at splitting Aroostook County off of Maine,[53] and the short lived Republic of Madawaska in the 1800s[54]
Manx people
Flag of the Isle of Man.svg
Manx language, Manx English Christianity 89,000 (2002)[55] Europe United Kingdom Isle of Man Mec Vannin Isle of Man is a self-governing British Crown dependency.
Karelians
KarelianNationalFlag.svg
Karelian, Russian, Finnish Christianity 77,000 Europe Finland, Russia Karelia East Karelian uprising Divided into East Karelia and West Karelia.
Rusyns
Flag of Carpathian Ruthenia.svg
Rusyn, Ukrainian, Slovak, Serbian Christianity 68,000 (official; the actual population may be 1.2 million) Europe Ukraine, Slovakia, Serbia, Poland, Hungary and Romania Carpathian Ruthenia World Congress of Rusyns, Rusyn separatist movement The Rusyn ethnicity is not recognised by Ukraine and does not appear in the Ukrainian census. Many speakers of the Lemko and Hutsul dialects identify primarily as Lemkos and Hutsuls, rather than Rusyns or Ukrainians. A separate population, the Pannonian Rusyns, are a minority in Serbia and Croatia.
Faroese people
Flag of the Faroe Islands.svg
Faroese language Christianity 66,000 Europe Denmark Faroe Islands Faroese independence movement Regional autonomy in Faroe Islands.
Sorbs
Flag of Sorbs.svg
Sorbian language Christianity (Roman Catholicism) 60,000–70,000 (est.) Europe Germany and Czech Republic Lusatia Domowina Divided into Upper Sorbs and Lower Sorbs.
Ainu people Ainu languages, Japanese people, Russian language Animism, Shintoism, Buddhism, Christianity 25,000 – 200,000 (est.) Asia Japan, Russia Hokkaido Ainu Movement Seek greater independence in Japan[56][57][58]
Orcadians
2007 Flag of Orkney.svg
Norn language (extinct), Scottish English, Insular Scots Christianity 21,349 Europe United Kingdom Orkney Orkney and Shetland Movement Formerly a part of the Earldom of Orkney (along with Shetland)

Many residents have hoped for greater autonomy from the British Government in the past, and were promised more powers in the event of Scottish independence and now hope for further autonomy from the Scottish Government[59]

Rapa Nui people
Easter Island flag 1876 to 1888.png
Rapa Nui language, Spanish language Christianity (Catholicism) 5,682 Oceania Chile Easter Island Rapa Nui independence movement[60][61] The Rapa Nui Parliament is a pro-independence organisation[62]

參見[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ David Newman, Boundaries, Territory and Postmodernity
  2. ^ Template:The book "Kürt Tarihi Aşiretler ve İsyanlar" by Hekimoğlu Süleyman Özcan
  3. ^ Benue-Congo languages. 
  4. ^ John A. Shoup III, Ethnic Groups of Africa and the Middle East: An Encyclopedia 2011 p.237
  5. ^ James Minahan, Encyclopedia of Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups around the World, 2nd Edition: Ethnic and National Groups around the World 2016 p.178
  6. ^ James Minahan. Encyclopedia of the stateless nations. 3. L - R. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002. P. 1581.
  7. ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
  8. ^ About Uyghurs | Uyghur American Association. uyghuramerican.org. 
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ Syed Farooq Hasnat, Pakistan 2011 p.82
  11. ^ The Kabyle People. [2 August 2016]. 
  12. ^ Iran. Ethnologue. [28 December 2018]. 
  13. ^ James B. Minahan, Encyclopedia of Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups around the World, 2nd Edition: Ethnic and National Groups around the World 2016 p.13
  14. ^ James Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World A-Z 2002 p.402
  15. ^ James Minahan. Encyclopedia of the stateless nations. 4. S - Z. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002.
  16. ^ James B. Minahan, Encyclopedia of Stateless Nations 2nd Edition: Ethnic and National Groups around the World 2016 p.422
  17. ^ James B. Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: D-K 2002 p.677
  18. ^ James B. Minahan, Encyclopedia of Stateless Nations 2nd Edition: Ethnic and National Groups around the World 2016 p.352
  19. ^ Assessment for Lozi in Zambia. Minorities at Risk. [2009-04-10]. (原始内容存档于2010-06-03). 
  20. ^ Interactivo: Creencias y prácticas religiosas en España. La Vanguardia. [28 December 2018]. 
  21. ^ Jeffrey Cole, Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia 2011 p.235
  22. ^ James Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World A-Z 2002 p.1714
  23. ^ Acehnese. Encyclopædia Britannica. ©2016 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved on July 8, 2016.
  24. ^ Aris Ananta, Evi Nurvidya Arifin, International Migration in Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2004, p.267
  25. ^ UNPO: Assyria. [2 August 2016]. 
  26. ^ Jeffrey Cole, Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia 2011 p.38
  27. ^ Larry Clark. Turkmen Reference Grammar. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1998; p. 11. ISBN 9783447040198
  28. ^ James B. Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World A-Z 2002 p.870
  29. ^ Aragonese in Spain. joshuaproject.net. 
  30. ^ Minahan, James. Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations. Greenwood Press. 2002: 4000. ISBN 9780313076961. 
  31. ^ Eurominority – La solidarité avec le peuple palestinien. (原始内容存档于2006-06-23). 
  32. ^ Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations, James Minahan, pg. 1661
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