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沙威玛

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沙威瑪
Chicken Shawarma on a Stick.jpg
别称chawarma、shaurma、showarma
类型肉類
起源地鄂圖曼帝國
地区安那托利亞黎凡特中東
上菜温度
主要成分肉類:羊肉、雞肉火雞肉牛肉
三明治:沙威瑪肉、皮塔餅卷皮英语Wrap (food)麵包、切碎或切絲蔬菜、醃製和各種各樣調味品
类似菜餚土耳其烤肉Al pastor英语Al pastor希臘旋轉烤肉

沙威玛(阿拉伯语:شاورما‎,英語:Shawarma 或 Shawurma)是一道流行於中東黎凡特地區的肉類菜餚[1],將羊肉切成薄片堆疊成錐形,然後在緩慢轉動的垂直烤肉架上烘烤,同時不斷地將表面已烤熟的肉切下而成[2][3],也有用鸡肉牛肉等製成的[4][5][6]。是世界上最受歡迎的街頭小吃之一,尤其是在埃及、黎凡特、高加索、阿拉伯半島和其他中東地區的國家[7][8]

歷史

「沙威玛」的阿拉伯单词,源於土耳其文“çevirme[tʃeviɾˈme],意思是“转動”[8]。雖然在水平烤架上烤肉有著悠久的歷史,但烤一疊垂直的肉片並在烹飪時將其切下的方式首先出現在19世紀的土耳其[6][9][10],类似于土耳其烤肉希腊旋转烤肉[6][11][12],又在20世紀初由黎巴嫩移民帶到了墨西哥[11][13]

制作

沙威瑪是由經過調味的醃製羊肉、羊肉、小牛肉、牛肉、雞肉或火雞肉切成薄片製成的,切片堆叠在大約60厘米長的烤簽上,通過在堆叠中添加脂肪塊以增加多汁性和風味,電動烤盤在加熱元件前緩慢轉動肉堆,持續烘烤外層,通常用一把廚刀將碎肉從旋轉的肉堆上切下以備上菜[6]

搭配的香料可能包括孜然小荳蔻肉桂薑黃辣椒粉,在某些地區還有巴哈拉特[13][14]。沙威瑪通常用作三明治或捲餅的餡料,也被加入皮塔饼烤饼[6][15]

在以色列,大多數沙威瑪是用深色火雞肉製成的,通常配上芝麻醬,因為酸奶醬和肉一起食用會違反猶太教對於牛奶和肉的限制[13]。常見的沙威瑪通常用西紅柿丁、黃瓜丁、洋蔥、醃菜、鷹嘴豆泥、芝麻醬或安巴芒果醬來裝飾[6]。一些餐廳可能會提供額外的配料,如烤辣椒、茄子或炸薯條[16]

图片

相關條目

参考资料

  1. ^ Philip Mattar. Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East & North Africa: D-K. Macmillan Reference USA. 2004: 840 [2022-06-11]. ISBN 978-0-02-865771-4. (原始内容存档于2022-01-06). 
  2. ^ Mattar, Philip. Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East & North Africa: D-K. Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East & North Africa 2 Hardcover. Macmillan Library Reference. 2004: 840 [2022-06-11]. ISBN 9780028657714. OCLC 469317304. (原始内容存档于2022-01-06). Shawarma is a popular Levantine Arab specialty. 
  3. ^ La Boone, III, John A. Around the World of Food: Adventures in Culinary History Paperback. iUniverse, Inc. 2006: 115 [2022-06-11]. ISBN 0595389686. OCLC 70144831. (原始内容存档于2022-01-06). Shawarma - An Arab sandwich similar to the gyro. 
  4. ^ Albala, Ken (编). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. 2011: 197, 225, 250, 260–261, 269 [2022-06-11]. ISBN 9780313376269. (原始内容存档于2022-01-06) –通过Google Books. 
  5. ^ Davidson, Alan. Jaine, Tom , 编. The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford Companions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2014: 259 [2022-06-11]. ISBN 9780191040726. OCLC 1119636257. (原始内容存档于2020-07-30) –通过Google Books. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Marks, Gil. Encyclopedia of Jewish Food. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. 2010 [2022-06-11]. ISBN 9780544186316. OCLC 849738985. (原始内容存档于2022-06-23) –通过Google Books. 
  7. ^ Kraig, Bruce; Sen, Colleen Taylor. Street Food Around the World: An Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. 2013: xxv, 18–19, 127–129, 339. ISBN 978-1598849554. OCLC 864676073. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Al Khan, Mohammed N. Shawarma: the Arabic fast food. Gulf News. 2009-07-31 [2022-06-11]. (原始内容存档于2018-03-04). 
  9. ^ Eberhard Seidel-Pielen. Döner-Fieber sogar in Hoyerswerda [Doner fever even in Hoyerswerda]. ZEIT ONLINE. 1996-05-10 [2016-05-06]. (原始内容存档于2021-12-25) (德语). Neither in the written recipes of the medieval Arab cuisine nor in the Turkish cookbooks from the first half of the 19th century are there any indications. According to research carried out by the Turkish master chef Rennan Yaman, who lives in Berlin, the doner kebab is an amazingly young creation of Ottoman cuisine. (Quote translated from the German) 
  10. ^ Kiple, Kenneth F.; Ornelas, Kriemhild Coneè (编). The Cambridge World History of Food, Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. 2000: 1147 [2022-06-11]. ISBN 9780521402156. (原始内容存档于2020-07-29) –通过Google Books. Bursa is the town that gave birth to the world-famous doner kebab, meat roasted on a vertical revolving spit. 
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 Prichep, Deena; Estrin, Daniel. Thank the Ottoman Empire for the taco al pastor. PRI. 2015-05-07 [2017-03-19]. (原始内容存档于2015-05-08). 
  12. ^ Kremezi, Aglaia. What's in the Name of a Dish?. Hosking, Richard (编). Food and Language: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cooking 2009 28. Totnes: Prospect Books. 2010: 203–204 [2022-06-11]. ISBN 9781903018798. OCLC 624419365. (原始内容存档于2020-01-09). 
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 13.2 Guttman, Vered. How to Make Shawarma Like an Israeli. Haaretz. 2017-05-01 [2022-06-11]. (原始内容存档于2020-11-12). 
  14. ^ Salloum, Habeeb; Lim, Suan L. The Arabian Nights Cookbook: From Lamb Kebabs to Baba Ghanouj, Delicious Homestyle Arabian Cooking. Tokyo: Tuttle Pub. 2010: 66 [2022-06-11]. ISBN 9781462905249. OCLC 782879761. (原始内容存档于2022-06-23). 
  15. ^ Al-Masri, Mohammad. Colloquial Arabic (Levantine): The Complete Course for Beginners. Routledge. 
  16. ^ Laor, Eran. Shawarma, the Iconic Israeli Street Food, Is Slowly Making a Comeback in Tel Aviv. Haaretz. 2019-01-10 [2022-06-11]. (原始内容存档于2022-03-05). 

外部連結