沙樂琴

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沙樂琴

沙樂琴(Sarod, 孟加拉語:সরোদ shorod, Hindi:सरोद),又譯作薩羅德,是除了錫塔琴以外,在北印度古典音樂最流行的樂器。比錫塔琴體型略小,沙樂琴的聲音比較低沉和內斂。由於沒有(frets),方便大幅度的滑音。共有四至五條演奏用的弦,另有兩條持續低音的弦(chikari strings),和九至十一條共鳴弦,指板多以不銹鋼製造,共鳴箱蒙以羊皮。右手以木製的撥來撥弦,而左手按弦時多用指甲尖,方便滑音,也令樂器的音色略帶金屬聲。[1]

椰子殼製的撥

歷史[编辑]

沙樂琴的名字源於波斯語,意思是漂亮的聲音或旋律,可能起源於今日阿富汗的地區,最初被稱為低音 rubab。[2]

著名演奏家[编辑]

早期的開拓者[编辑]

  • Abdullah Khan (1849–1928), Court Musician of Darbhanga and Dacca
  • Asadullah Khan "Kaukav" (1852–1919)
  • Fida Hussain Khan (1855–1927), Court Musician of Rampur
  • Ghulam Ali Bangash (c. 1790-1858), Court Musician of Gwalior
  • Karamatullah Khan (1848–1933), Court Musician of Nepal
  • Mohammad Amir Khan (1873–1934), Court Musician of Darbhanga and Rajshahi
  • Murad Ali Khan (c. 1825-1905), Court Musician of Gwalior and Darbhanga
  • Niyamatullah Khan (1809–1911), Court Musician of Bundi, Alwar and finally Lucknow
  • Shafayat Ali Khan (1838–1915)[3]

二十世紀演奏家[编辑]

  • Ali Akbar Khan (1922–2009)
  • Allauddin Khan (1862–1972)
  • Aashish Khan (b. 1939)
  • Amjad Ali Khan (b. 1945)
  • Bahadur Khan (1931-1989)
  • Buddhadev Das Gupta (b. 1933)
  • Hafiz Ali Khan (1888–1972)
  • Sakhawat Hussain (1877–1955)
  • Sharan Rani Backliwal (1929–2008)
  • Radhika Mohan Maitra (1917–1981)
  • Vasant Rai (1942–1985)

參見[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Broughton, Simon. Tools of the Trade: Sarod. [2006-12-02]. (原始内容存档于2006-11-18). 
  2. ^ Courtney, David. Sarod. David and Chandrakantha Courtney. [2006-12-02]. 
  3. ^ Tamori, Masakazu. The Transformation of Sarod Gharānā:Transmitting Musical Property in Hindustani Music (PDF). Senrii Ethnological Studies 71: Music and Society in South Asia. [2009-08-03]. ISBN 978-4-901906-58-6. [失效連結]