沙蝰

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沙蝰
Vipera-ammodytes-ruffoi-weiblich.jpg
保护状况
科学分类 编辑
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 脊索动物门 Chordata
纲: 爬行纲 Reptilia
目: 有鳞目 Squamata
科: 蝰蛇科 Viperidae
属: 蝰属 Vipera
种: 沙蝰 V. ammodytes
二名法
Vipera ammodytes
(Linnaeus, 1758)
異名[2]
  • Coluber Ammodytes Linnaeus, 1758
  • Vipera Illyrica Laurenti, 1768
  • Vipera ammodytes
    Sonnini & Latreille, 1801
  • [Vipera (Echidna)] Ammodytes
    Merrem, 1820
  • Cobra ammodytes Fitzinger, 1826
  • [Pelias] Col[uber]. ammodytes
    F. Boie, 1827
  • Vipera (Rhinechis) Ammodytes
    — Fitzinger, 1843
  • V[ipera]. (Vipera) ammodytes
    Jan, 1863
  • Vipera ammodytes — Eber, 1863
  • Vipera ammodytes
    Boulenger, 1896
  • [Vipera ammodytes] var. steindachneri F. Werner, 1897
  • Vipera ammodytes [ammodytes]
    — Boulenger, 1903
  • Vipera ammodytes ammodytes
    — Zarevsky, 1915
  • Teleovipera ammodytes
    — A.F. Reuss, 1927
  • Vipera ammodytes ammodytes
    Mertens & L. Müller, 1928
  • Rhinaspis illyrica litoralis
    A.F. Reuss, 1935
  • Rhinaspis illyrica velebitensis
    A.F. Reuss, 1935
  • Rhinaspis illyrica f[orma]. melanura A.F. Reuss, 1937
  • Vipera ammodytes ruffoi
    Bruno, 1968
  • Vipera (Rhinaspis) ammodytes ammodytes Obst, 1983
  • Vipera ammodytes
    Golay et al., 1993

沙蝰(学名:Vipera ammodytes)是蝰属的一种毒蛇[3],分布于南欧和巴尔干半岛、中东地区。它是欧洲最危险的一种毒蛇[4]。其种加词来自希腊语,意思是“沙”(ammos)、“穴居者”(dutes),但实际上它更偏好生活在岩石间,而非沙地中[5]

分类[编辑]

它有五个亚种[6],此外一些文献还包含有亚种V. a. ruffoi(Bruno, 1968;分布于意大利阿尔卑斯山区),但大多数学者认为它和V. a. gregorwalineriV. a. ammodytes的异名。V. a. transcaucasiana有时也被视为一个单独的种。[4]

亚种[6] 命名人[6] 分布
V. a. ammodytes (Linnaeus, 1758) 南欧
V. a. gregorwallneri Sochurek, 1974 南欧
V. a. meridionalis Boulenger, 1903 希腊、土耳其色雷斯
V. a. montandoni Boulenger, 1904 保加利亚和南罗马尼亚
V. a. transcaucasiana Boulenger, 1913 格鲁吉亚和土耳其安娜托利亚

特征[编辑]

全长可达95 cm(37.5英寸),但一般不超过85 cm(33.5英寸),而且其北方个体明显比南方个体要大。其平均长度在50~70 cm(19.5~27.5英寸)之间。[7]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Aram Agasyan; Aziz Avci; Boris Tuniyev; Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic; Petros Lymberakis; Claes Andrén; Dan Cogalniceanu; John Wilkinson; Natalia Ananjeva; Nazan Üzüm; 等. Vipera ammodytes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN). 2009, 2009: e.T62255A12584303. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009.RLTS.T62255A12584303.en. 
  2. ^ McDiarmid, R.W., Campbell, J.A., Touré, T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  3. ^ Street, D. 1979. The Reptiles of Northern and Central Europe. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd. 268 pp. ISBN 0-7134-1374-3.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Mallow, D., Ludwig, D., Nilson, G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company. 359 pp. ISBN 0-89464-877-2.
  5. ^ Gotch, A.F. 1986. Reptiles – Their Latin Names Explained. Poole, UK: Blandford Press. 176 pp. ISBN 0-7137-1704-1.
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 Vipera ammodytes (Linnaeus, 1758). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [26 July 2006] (英语). 
  7. ^ Strugariu, A. 2006. The European Horn-Nosed Viper 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期14 October 2013.. VenomousReptiles.org.

外部链接[编辑]