# 沸点

## 飽和溫度與飽和氣壓

${\displaystyle T_{\text{B}}=\left({\frac {1}{T_{0}}}-{\frac {R\,\ln {\frac {P}{P_{0}}}}{\Delta H_{\text{vap}}}}\right)^{-1}}$

${\displaystyle T_{B}}$ 為特定氣壓的沸點，
${\displaystyle T_{0}}$ 為沸騰溫度，
${\displaystyle P}$ 為液體的蒸氣壓
${\displaystyle P_{0}}$ 為已知沸騰溫度 ${\displaystyle T_{0}}$ 下的某個氣壓（通常是 1 atm 或 100 kPa），
${\displaystyle R}$理想氣體常數
${\displaystyle \Delta H_{\text{vap}}}$ 為液體的汽化熱
${\displaystyle \ln }$自然對數

1954年之前，攝氏溫標定義的兩個參考點為標準大氣壓下，以 0 °C 作為水的凝固點，100 °C 作為水的沸點。

## 沸點作為純净化合物的參考性質

常見名稱 IUPAC 名稱 正丁烷 異丁烷 丁烷 2-甲基丙烷 −0.5 −11.7
常見名稱 IUPAC 名稱 分子結構 正戊烷 異戊烷 新戊烷 戊烷 2-甲基丁烷 2,2-二甲基丙烷 36.0 27.7 9.5

## 參考書目

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2. ^ Theodore, Louis; Dupont, R. Ryan; Ganesan, Kumar (编). Pollution Prevention: The Waste Management Approach to the 21st Century. CRC Press. 1999. section 27, p. 15. ISBN 1-56670-495-2.
3. ^ Boiling Point of Water and Altitude. www.engineeringtoolbox.com. [2022-03-27]. （原始内容存档于2023-07-15）.
4. ^ General Chemistry Glossary页面存档备份，存于互联网档案馆普渡大學 website page
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6. Cox, J. D. Notation for states and processes, significance of the word standard in chemical thermodynamics, and remarks on commonly tabulated forms of thermodynamic functions. Pure and Applied Chemistry. 1982, 54 (6): 1239–1250. .
7. ^ Standard Pressure页面存档备份，存于互联网档案馆） IUPAC defines the "standard pressure" as being 105 Pa (which amounts to 1 bar).
8. ^ Appendix 1: Property Tables and Charts (SI Units)页面存档备份，存于互联网档案馆）, Scroll down to Table A-5 and read the temperature value of 99.61 °C at a pressure of 100 kPa (1 bar). Obtained from McGraw-Hill's Higher Education website.
9. ^ West, J. B. Barometric pressures on Mt. Everest: New data and physiological significance. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1999, 86 (3): 1062–6. PMID 10066724. doi:10.1152/jappl.1999.86.3.1062.
10. ^ Perry, R.H.; Green, D.W. (编). Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook 7th. McGraw-Hill. 1997. ISBN 0-07-049841-5.
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