泥濘道路季

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俄國畫家薩伏拉索夫在1894描畫出的泥濘道路風景圖

泥濘道路季(来自俄语:распу́тицаIPA:[rɐsˈputʲɪtsə] ,“解凍”的意思)是指東歐黑土上的一個季節,在每年的春季(3月中旬至4月底)與秋季(大約10月中旬至11月底),由於春天融雪或秋天下雨而造成的泥泞,使在泥土路上行走变得困难,因此戰爭時可使敵人陷入泥潭,又稱為泥將軍[1]

词源[编辑]

俄語,术语rasputitsa 、рас- (ras-)、不愉快、+ путь (put)、旅行、+ -ица (-itsa) 指的是春季或秋季,也指这段时期的路况。 [2]

乌克兰语 бездоріжжяbezdorizhzhia,roadlessness ( 关于这个音频文件 讀音</img>关于这个音频文件 讀音) 通常指春季,但也可指秋季,因雨水或融雪,令、轨道、小径或任何排水不良的越野区域上的把路线变成无法通行的深泥时。 [3]

影響[编辑]

民事[编辑]

该术语适用于白俄罗斯俄罗斯乌克兰的泥泞路况,这是由于该地区粘土般的土壤排水不良造成的。在此期间,俄罗斯某些地区的道路受到重量限制和封闭。这现象亦是苏联在20世纪初發展的其中一个障碍,因为近四成的农村使用泥路[4]

战爭时期[编辑]

俄罗斯的泥濘道路季在战时具有巨大的防御优势[5][6],被稱為泥將軍。

在13世纪蒙古入侵期间,春季的解冻可能使诺夫哥罗德免于被征服和洗劫。 [7]在1812年拿破仑入侵俄罗斯帝国期间,泥浆也是對法軍一个很大的障碍[5] [6]

第二次世界大战期間,长达数月的泥泞时期减缓了納粹德軍莫斯科战役(1941年10月 - 1942年1月)期间向苏联的推进,并可能有助于把苏联首都免於被納粹德国占领。 [8]納粹德軍使用的閃擊戰因此被揭露破綻:虽然坦克可以在夏季或冬季有效运行,但它们在春季和秋季因泥濘的影響就不太有用[9]

俄罗斯入侵乌克兰之前,一些分析人士认为,春季的泥浆路會對后勤產生挑战,並有可能阻碍大规模的侵佔[10]。果如所料,俄軍入侵後發現他們许多的機動步兵都被困在田野裡,使他們被仅限于使用主要道路進攻,所以大大减缓了俄軍基辅和其他方向的推进[11][12]

画廊[编辑]

參見[编辑]

参考[编辑]

  1. ^ 俄軍戰車糗被「泥將軍」打敗 烏軍開挖諷:把坦克種在地上. 東森新聞. 2022-03-30 [5 March 2022]. (原始内容存档于2022-10-08). 
  2. ^ Siegelbaum, Lewis H. Cars for Comrades: The Life of the Soviet Automobile. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 2011: 309 [2016-12-18]. ISBN 9780801461484. 
  3. ^ Hambling, David. Mud season in Ukraine leaves Russian tanks stuck in more. The Guardian. 2022-04-12 [2022-09-01]. (原始内容存档于2022-11-06). 
  4. ^ Siegelbaum, Lewis H. Cars for Comrades: The Life of the Soviet Automobile. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 2011: 309 [2016-12-18]. ISBN 9780801461484. Siegelbaum, Lewis H. (2011). Cars for Comrades: The Life of the Soviet Automobile. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. 309. ISBN 9780801461484. Retrieved 2016-12-18.
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 FAQ regarding what made Napoleon fail in invading Russia页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆), Napoleon -series website
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Thiers, M. Adolphe. History of the Consulate and the Empire of France under Napoleon IV. 由D. Forbes Campbell翻译. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. 1864: 243 [2022-09-01]. (原始内容存档于2020-04-06). whilst it was almost impossible to drag the gun-carriages through the half-frozen mud  (regarding November 20, 1812)
  7. ^ May, Timothy Michael (编). The Mongol Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia. Empires of the World 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. 2016: 65 [21 August 2019]. ISBN 9781610693400. During the Mongol invasion of the Rus' principalities in 1238-1240, Novgorod escaped destruction by the Mongols due to an early spring, which transformed the routes to Novgorod into a muddy bog. 
  8. ^ Overy, Richard. Russia's War. London: Penguin. 1997: 113–114. ISBN 1-57500-051-2. Both sides now struggled in the autumn mud. On October 6 [1941] the first snow had fallen, unusually early. It soon melted, turning the whole landscape into its habitual trackless state – the rasputitsa, literally the ‘time without roads’.... It is commonplace to attribute the German failure to take Moscow to the sudden change in the weather. While it is certainly true that German progress slowed, it had already been slowing because of the fanatical resistance of Soviet forces and the problem of moving supplies over the long distances through occupied territory. The mud slowed the Soviet build-up also, and hampered the rapid deployment of men and machines. 
  9. ^ Pinkus, Oscar. The War Aims and Strategies of Adolf Hitler. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. 2005: 241 [21 August 2019]. ISBN 9780786420544. By the time the Germans approached their major objectives such as Rostov, Moscow, or Leningrad the campaigning season was over and Barbarossa was off his horse. [...] [Hitler] had not planned to fight in Russia during the fall and winter. He had stated in his Directive No. 21 that this was to be a 'lightning campaign' to be won in two to four months maximum. [...] the cause of failure was the proposition that the Soviet Union could and would be defeated in a blitzkrieg. 
  10. ^ Will Ukraine’s muddy ground halt Russian tanks?. The Economist. 7 February 2022 [5 March 2022]. (原始内容存档于2022-11-15). 
  11. ^ Roza, David. ‘Tanks and mud are not friends’ — Ukraine’s terrain is proving to be a problem for Russian armor. Task & Purpose. 2 March 2022 [5 March 2022]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-24). 
  12. ^ Ukraine: Why has Russia's 64km convoy near Kyiv stopped moving?. BBC News. 4 March 2022 [5 March 2022]. (原始内容存档于2022-03-04).