海綿骨針

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各種形狀的海綿骨針
六放海綿(玻璃海綿)的矽質骨針

骨針(英語:spicules)是多數海綿(多孔動物門)經生物礦化產生的構造,提供結構支持與防禦的功能[1]。四大類群的海綿中有三者(尋常海綿綱六放海綿綱同骨海綿綱英语Homoscleromorpha)的骨針成分為非晶質的[2]鈣質海綿綱的骨針成分則為碳酸鈣[3]。骨針的大小與形狀因海綿種類不同而異,常作為分類依據[4]

形成[编辑]

海綿骨針的生成過程[4]
(A)海綿骨針於中質層英语Mesohyl合成: AI:造骨細胞內軸絲(AF)形成;AII:骨針成長;AIII:兩細胞生成的骨針相互連接;AIV:成熟骨針在海綿中轉移位置
(B)海綿死亡、組織分解
(C)脫落的海綿組織
(D)脫落的骨針

骨針是由海綿中質層英语Mesohyl造骨細胞英语Sclerocyte合成[5][6],受基因調控[7]。此類細胞中可生成蛋白質組成的軸絲[8],為骨針的軸心結構,隨後於其上生成矽或碳酸鈣等礦物,軸絲的大小與形狀將決定骨針的形狀[9]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Jones, Adam C.; Blum, James E.; Pawlik, Joseph R. Testing for defensive synergy in Caribbean sponges: Bad taste or glass spicules?. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 2005-08-08, 322 (1): 67–81. ISSN 0022-0981. S2CID 85614908. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2005.02.009. 
  2. ^ Hooper, John N. A.; Van Soest, Rob W. M. Systema Porifera. A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. Systema Porifera. 2002: 1–7. ISBN 978-0-306-47260-2. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-0747-5_1. 
  3. ^ Rossi, Andre L.; Campos, Andrea P.C.; Barroso, Madalena M.S.; Klautau, Michelle; Archanjo, Bráulio S.; Borojevic, Radovan; Farina, Marcos; Werckmann, Jacques. Long-range crystalline order in spicules from the calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna (Porifera, Calcarea). Acta Biomaterialia. 2014, 10 (9): 3875–3884. PMID 24487057. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2014.01.023. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Łukowiak, Magdalena. Utilizing sponge spicules in taxonomic, ecological and environmental reconstructions: A review. PeerJ. 2020, 8: e10601. PMC 7751429可免费查阅. PMID 33384908. doi:10.7717/peerj.10601. 
  5. ^ Custódio, Márcio; Hajdu, Eduardo; Muricy, Guilherme. In vivo study of microsclere formation in sponges of the genus Mycale (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida). Zoomorphology. 2002, 121 (4): 203–211. S2CID 39893025. doi:10.1007/s00435-002-0057-9. 
  6. ^ Müller, Werner E. G.; Rothenberger, Matthias; Boreiko, Alexandra; Tremel, Wolfgang; Reiber, Andreas; Schröder, Heinz C. Formation of siliceous spicules in the marine demosponge Suberites domuncula. Cell and Tissue Research. 2005, 321 (2): 285–297. PMID 15947968. S2CID 12720013. doi:10.1007/s00441-005-1141-5. 
  7. ^ Krasko, Anatoli; Lorenz, Bernd; Batel, Renato; Schröder, Heinz C.; Müller, Isabel M.; Müller, Werner E. G. Expression of silicatein and collagen genes in the marine sponge Suberites domuncula is controlled by silicate and myotrophin. European Journal of Biochemistry. 2000, 267 (15): 4878–4887. PMID 10903523. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.2000.01547.x. 
  8. ^ Shimizu, K.; Cha, J.; Stucky, G. D.; Morse, D. E. Silicatein : Cathepsin L-like protein in sponge biosilica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1998, 95 (11): 6234–6238. PMC 27641可免费查阅. PMID 9600948. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.11.6234可免费查阅. 
  9. ^ Pisera, Andrzej. Some aspects of silica deposition in lithistid demosponge desmas. Microscopy Research and Technique. 2003, 62 (4): 312–326. PMID 14534905. S2CID 26495972. doi:10.1002/jemt.10398.