海蛳螺科

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海蛳螺科
Epitonium scalare shell.jpg
绮蛳螺Epitonium scalare)的外殼。绮蛳螺与其他腹足纲动物一样具有刻紋,这种结构是由突起的“肋”组成。肋是海蛳螺属物种的一个普遍特征。
科学分类 编辑
界: 动物界 Animalia
总门: 冠輪動物總門 Lophotrochozoa
门: 軟體動物門 Mollusca
纲: 腹足纲 Gastropoda
演化支: 新进腹足类 Caenogastropoda
演化支: 高腹足類 Hypsogastropoda
(未分级): 翼舌類 Ptenoglossa
总科: 海蛳螺总科 Epitonioidea
科: 海蛳螺科 Epitoniidae
Berry, 1910 (1812)[1]
模式属
Epitonium
P. F. Röding, 1798
多样性[2]
約 630 個物種
異名[3]
  • Epitoniinae
  • Janthinidae
  • Scalidae

海蛳螺科(学名:Epitoniidae)是一個小型、獵食性外寄生性海洋腹足纲软体动物下的一。舊屬异腹足目,今屬高腹足類支序翼舌類[3]。代表物种有绮蛳螺等。當紫螺科未被合併進本科前,本科物種通常都是白色的。

紫螺科(學名:Janthinidae),又名海蝸牛科,原是海蛳螺總科之下的一科,但再時已合併到海蛳螺科去了。這組浮游生物的腹足已演化為槳狀,以產生黏液泡泡來其身體「浮」起來[4]

分佈[编辑]

本科物種的棲息地散佈居全世界的海洋,從熱帶地區到南北極。

形態描述[编辑]

本科物種大多數都是白色的、有着陶瓷般的外表。這些海螺的複雜幾何殼體結構是值得注意的,而較大物種的貝殼是收藏家所珍視的。

類似砲塔形的螺殼由緊密纏繞(也有時纏繞比較鬆散)的凸起螺層形成,產生高高的錐狀螺旋。 許多物種中存在精細或微觀的螺旋形條紋英语striae(striae)。 貝殼有時具有臍孔。 本科物種的螺殼具有圓形或橢圓形的殼孔英语aperture (mollusc) ,但其內唇通常都縮小到成為了一條「癒傷組織」(callus)。 圓形和角質的口蓋英语Operculum (gastropod)上只有稀少的螺旋紋雙向的,並且緊密地封閉殼口。本科大多數物種的體型都是從小型到微細型,儘管有些物種會比較大,整個科的成螺的殼長在0.6和11.7厘米之間變化[5]

在本科的模式屬海蛳螺属的物種,其殼主要是軸向的雕塑,高度銳利的肋骨“花被”(costae)。這些肋骨可以提供一些防止其他捕食性蝸牛的保護,這將會發現難以或不可能在具有這種障礙物的殼中鑽孔。 the genus Epitonium, the type genus of the family, the shell has predominantly axial sculpture of high, sharply ribbed "". These costae may offer some protection against other predatory snails, which would find it difficult or impossible to bore a hole in a shell with such obstructions.

生態[编辑]

Wentletraps are usually found on sandy bottoms near sea anemones or corals, which serve as a food source for them. Some species are foragers and search for anemones.

Little is known about the biology of most wentletraps. Many wentletraps reveal a hint of purple body color, suggestive of carnivorous feeding (Keen, 1958). The animal can exude through its salivary gland a pink or purplish dye that may have an anaesthetic effect on its prey.

Keen also cited direct observation of a wentletrap feeding by insertion of its proboscis into a sea anemone. A sequence of a wentletrap feeding on an anemone has been published.[6] These snails also prey on corals and other coelenterates.

Female wentletraps lay egg capsules that are bound together with a supple string. The young emerge from these capsules as free-swimming larvae.[6]

分類[编辑]

海蛳螺科跟遠洋帶Nystiellidae科組成了海蛳螺总科,而海蛳螺总科亦是翼舌類非正式群組(Ptenoglossa)的成員。海蛳螺科是一個頗大的科,有約630個物種[2]。本分類舊屬中腹足目[7][8],也曾屬於异腹足目

[编辑]

本科包括下列各屬[3]

以下各屬為異名[3]
  • Acrilla H. Adams, 1860: synonym of Amaea H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Acutiscala de Boury, 1909 : synonym of Epitonium Röding, 1798
  • Amiciscala Jousseaume 1912  : synonym of Epitonium Röding, 1798
  • Asperiscala de Boury, 1909: synonym of Epitonium Röding, 1798
  • Cinctiscala de Boury 1909  : synonym of Asperiscala de Boury, 1909
  • Cirratiscala de Boury, 1909  : synonym of Epitonium Röding, 1798
  • Clathroscala de Boury 1889  : synonym of Amaea H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Clathrus Oken 1815  : synonym of Epitonium Röding, 1798
  • Compressiscala Masahito (Prince) & Habe 1976 : synonym of Gregorioiscala Cossmann, 1912
  • Dannevigena Iredale 1936  : synonym of Cirsotrema Mörch, 1852
  • Foliaceiscala de Boury 1912  : synonym of Epitonium Röding, 1798
  • Fragiliscala Azuma 1962  : synonym of Amaea H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • FragilopaliaAzuma 1972  : synonym of Amaea H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Glabriscala de Boury 1909  : synonym of Epitonium Röding, 1798
  • Lampropalia Kuroda & Ito, 1961  : synonym of Cylindriscala de Boury, 1909
  • Mazescala Iredale 1936  : synonym of Epitonium Röding, 1798
  • Nipponoscala Masahito (Prince) & Habe 1973  : synonym of Epitonium Röding, 1798
  • Nodiscala de Boury 1889 : synonym of Opalia H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Nystiella Clench & Turner, 1952  : synonym of Opaliopsis Thiele, 1928
  • Sagamiscala Masahito, Kuroda & Habe, 1971 : synonym of Globiscala de Boury, 1909
  • Scala Mörch, 1852 : synonym of Epitonium Röding, 1798
  • Scalina Conrad, 1865  : synonym of Amaea H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Spiniscala de Boury, 1909  : synonym of Epitonium Röding, 1798
  • Turbiniscala de Boury 1909  : synonym of Epitonium Röding, 1798
  • Viciniscala de Boury 1909  : synonym of Epitonium Röding, 1798

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Berry, S. S. (Review of) Report on a collection of shells from Peru, with a summary of littoral marine Mollusca of the Peruvian zoological province: "William Healey Dall: Proc. U. S. N. M. 37, pp. 147-294, Pls. 20-28, 1909". The Nautilus. 1910, 23 (10): 130–132 (英语). 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Art Weil. Conchologists of America List. University of Georgia. 1999 [2009-03-23]. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Gofas, S. Epitoniidae. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database.. World Register of Marine Species. 2010. 
  4. ^ Lalli, Carol M; Gilmer, Ronald W. Pelagic snails: the biology of holoplanktonic gastropod mollusks. Stanford University Press. 1989. ISBN 978-0-8047-1490-7. 
  5. ^ J. Wyatt Durham. Gastropods of the family Epitoniidae from mesozoid and Cenozoic rocks of the West Coast of North America. Journal of Paleontology. 1937, 11 (6): 479–512. JSTOR 1298354 (英语). 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Collin, Rachel (2000). "Development and anatomy of Nitidiscala tincta (Carpenter, 1865) (Gastropoda: Epitoniidae)". The Veliger 43(4): 302-312.
  7. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为shelldoc_420090220135的参考文献提供内容
  8. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为shell_6093的参考文献提供内容
  9. ^ Conchologists of America List. University of Georgia. 1999 [2009-03-23]. 
  10. ^ Janthinidae. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (英语). 
  • Laursen, D. 1953. The genus Ianthina: A monograph. Dana Report 38: 1-40, pl. 1
  • Vaught, K.C. (1989). A classification of the living Mollusca. American Malacologists: Melbourne, FL (USA). ISBN 0-915826-22-4. XII, 195 pp.
  • Bouchet P. & Rocroi J.-P. (2005) Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47(1-2): 1-397
  • 1887. Manual of Conchology volume 9, plate 9-10.

延伸閱讀[编辑]

外部連結[编辑]