湯都王國

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索

湯都巴彥英语Bayan (political entity),即湯都王國[1][2][3]菲律賓語Bayan ng Tondo貝貝因文字英语Baybayinᜃᜑᜍᜒᜀᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓᜊᜌᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ邦板牙語Balen ning Tondo, Kayarian ning Tondo比科爾語英语Bikol languages:Banwáan ini Tundo、Kahadean ini Tundo;梵语तोन्दुन्),中國古代又稱東都,是菲律賓西班牙人殖民前呂宋島最主要的政體[4](p71)[5],位於巴石河三角洲[6][7][5],靠近馬尼拉灣。

王國成立於約公元900年,由一些巴朗蓋組成,由世襲的拉肯和達圖統治。這王國位於海上絲綢之路路線最北端,依靠與中國貿易帶來財富,並把中國商品轉手整個群島的其餘地區。在與汶萊帝國蘇丹博基爾亞的聯盟期間,湯都王國進一步達到頂峰。大約在1500年左右,這個王國達到群島最北部。

自1570年開始與西班牙帝國接觸後,湯都在1571年被西班牙擊敗,被吸收為現代馬尼拉市的一個區域,結束了作為一個獨立政治實體的地位。

參考[编辑]

Aganduru Moriz, Rodrigo (1882) [1623]. Historica general de las islas occidentals a la Asia adyacentes llamadas Philipinas. Coleccion de Documentos ineditos para la Historia de España. Madrid

  1. ^ Pre-colonial Manila. Malacañang Presidential Museum and Library. Malacañang Presidential Museum and Library Araw ng Maynila Briefers. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. 23 June 2015 [27 April 2017]. (原始内容存档于9 March 2016). 
  2. ^ Junker, Laura Lee. Integrating History and Archaeology in the Study of Contact Period Philippine Chiefdoms. International Journal of Historical Archaeology. 1998, 2 (4). 
  3. ^ Renfrew, Colin, and Shennan, S. (eds.). Ranking, Resource, and Exchange. Cambridge.: Cambridge University Press. 1982. 
  4. ^ Schliesinger, Joachim. Origin of Man in Southeast Asia 4: Early Dominant Peoples of the Maritime Region. Volume 4 dari Origin of Man in Southeast Asia. Booksmango. 2016. ISBN 9781633237285. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Abinales, Patricio N. and Donna J. Amoroso, State and Society in the Philippines. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005. as referred to in http://malacanang.gov.ph/75832-pre-colonial-manila/#_ftn1
  6. ^ Scott, William Henry. Looking for the Prehispanic Filipino and Other Essays in the Philippine History. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. 1992. ISBN 971-10-0524-7. 
  7. ^ Jocano, F. Landa. Filipino Prehistory: Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage. Quezon City: Punlad Research House, Inc. 2001. ISBN 971-622-006-5.