演化語言學

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演化語言學達爾文語言學是一種社會生物學取徑的語言學研究[1][2]。演化語言學家認為語言學演化生物學演化心理學的次領域。這種研究取徑也與演化人類學認知語言學生物語言學有所關連。演化語言學將語言視為先天的產物,主要關注於語言的生物性起源和語言的發展[3]。演化語言學與人文主義取徑相對,特別是結構語言學[4]

該學科較大的一項挑戰是其缺乏實證資料:早期人類語言並無任何考古學證據。計算系統生物學人工語言臨床研究常用來填補這一部分的知識空缺。雖然一般認為是生物學形塑了大腦對於語言的處理,目前卻無法找到生物學與特定的語言結構或語言的普遍性的明確連結[5]

該領域一直缺乏突破性發展,隨之而來的是許多針的語言的自然本質的討論。有些人認為可將其視為一種器官[6]或是有機體[7]。有些人認為語言可視為一種晶體[8]或非晶體式的礦物結構[9],一種基因突變[10],一種生物本能[11],一種寄生蟲[12]一種複製器群體[3];甚或是一種心智病毒。然而目前沒有任何科學證據可以證實上述說法,有些看法亦被視為偽科學[13][14]

參見[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Gontier, Nathalie. Selectionist Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics: An Epistemological Analysis. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science. 2012-03, 26 (1) [2022-10-13]. ISSN 0269-8595. doi:10.1080/02698595.2012.653114. (原始内容存档于2021-05-25) (英语). 
  2. ^ McMahon, April; McMahon, Robert. Evolutionary Linguistics. Cambridge University Press. 2012. ISBN 978-0521891394. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Croft, William. Evolutionary Linguistics. Annual Review of Anthropology. 2008-10-01, 37 (1) [2022-10-13]. ISSN 0084-6570. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.37.081407.085156. (原始内容存档于2022-06-10) (英语). 
  4. ^ Croft, William. Functional-typological theory in its historical and intellectual context. STUF - Language Typology and Universals. 1993-01, 46 (1-4) [2022-10-13]. ISSN 2196-7148. doi:10.1524/stuf.1993.46.14.15. (原始内容存档于2022-10-13). 
  5. ^ Gibson, Kathleen R.; Tallerman, Maggie (编). The Oxford Handbook of Language Evolution. Oxford University Press. 2011. ISBN 9780199541119. 
  6. ^ Anderson, Stephen R.; Lightfoot, David W. The Language Organ: Linguistics as Cognitive Psychology. Cambridge University Press. 2003. ISBN 9780521007832. 
  7. ^ van Driem, George. The language organism: the Leiden theory of language evolution. Minett, James W.; Wang, William S.-Y. (编). Language Acquisition, Change and Emergence: Essays in Evolutionary Linguistics. 2005: 331–340. 
  8. ^ Chomsky, Noam. The Minimalist Program. 20th Anniversary Edition.. MIT Press. 2015. ISBN 978-0-262-52734-7. 
  9. ^ Bybee, Joan L.; Beckner, Clay. Usage-Based theory. Heine, Bernd; Narrog, Heiko (编). The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis. Oxford University Press. 2015: 953–980. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199544004.013.0032. 
  10. ^ Berwick, Robert C.; Chomsky, Noam. Why Only Us: Language and Evolution. MIT Press. 2015. ISBN 9780262034241. 
  11. ^ Pinker, Steven. The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language (PDF). Penguin Books. 1994 [2020-03-03]. ISBN 9780140175295. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2019-11-26). 
  12. ^ Hung, Tzu-wei. How Did Language Evolve? Some Reflections on the Language Parasite Debate. Biological Theory. 2019-12, 14 (4). ISSN 1555-5542. doi:10.1007/s13752-019-00321-x (英语). 
  13. ^ Schwarz-Friesel, Monika. On the status of external evidence in the theories of cognitive linguistics: compatibility problems or signs of stagnation in the field? Or: why do some linguists behave like Fodor’s input systems?. Language Sciences. Converging data sources in cognitive linguistics. 2012-11-01, 34 (6). ISSN 0388-0001. doi:10.1016/j.langsci.2012.04.007 (英语). 
  14. ^ Polichak, James W. Memes as pseudoscience. Shermer, Michael (编). The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience, Vol. 1. ABC Clio. 2002: 664–667. ISBN 1-57607-653-9. 

延伸閱讀[编辑]

外部連結[编辑]