烏尊哈桑

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烏尊哈桑(1423年-1478年1月6日)(英語:Uzun Hasan亞塞拜然語اوزون حسن , Uzun Həsən土耳其語Uzun Hasan)是白羊王朝的第九任統治者(1453年-1478年)。白羊王朝實際創建人卡拉·奥斯曼英语Qara Osman的曾孫。

烏尊哈桑出生於迪亞巴克爾,他信奉遜尼派教義,通曉《古蘭經》,熟悉突厥語、波斯語和阿拉伯語。烏尊哈桑曾娶特拉比松帝國的科穆寧王朝君主約翰四世·梅加斯·科穆寧的女兒狄奧多拉·梅加斯·科穆寧娜為妻。

在烏尊哈桑於1478年去世時白羊王朝的彊域圖

1453年,烏尊哈桑繼承為白羊王朝統治者,在他領導下,白羊王朝開始強大。1467年10月30日[1](或11月11日[2]),烏尊哈桑帶領白羊土庫曼軍隊在賓格爾省附近擊敗黑羊王朝的統治者傑漢·沙英语Jahan Shah[3][4],並於翌年將黑羊王朝滅亡。1468年,他又擊敗帖木兒帝國卜撒因,並佔據亞美尼亞阿塞拜疆、伊拉克北部和伊朗中西部,把國土伸展至巴格達以及波斯灣沿岸,並進一步將疆域伸展至伊朗甚至到達呼羅珊地區,亦因此遷都大不里士[5]

在西面的戰線,烏尊哈桑與特拉比松帝國威尼斯共和國結盟以對抗鄂圖曼帝國穆罕默德二世。但是於1461年,烏尊哈桑未能阻穆罕默德二世滅亡與他有姻親關係的特拉比松帝國。更於1473年,烏尊哈桑在泰爾詹戰役英语Battle of Otlukbeli中以輕騎兵為主的傳統土庫曼軍隊在僅僅一天時間內就被鄂圖曼帝國軍隊以火槍和加農炮摧毀[6]

1478年,烏尊哈桑去世,其子哈里勒繼位為蘇丹。烏尊哈桑死後,繼承人在爭權內訌,終於在19年後的1497年在傳位五任蘇丹後國家分裂為二,再被薩非王朝的創建者伊斯瑪儀一世於1501年在阿塞拜疆起兵打敗他們,1502年並攻克白羊王朝首都大不里士,定都於此地。1508年,伊斯瑪儀一世將白羊王朝覆滅,為薩非王朝所取代。

前任:
吉汗格爾
白羊王朝蘇丹
1453年-1478年
繼任:
哈里勒

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Edward Granville Browne. A History of Persian Literature Under Tartar Dominion (A.D, 1265–1502). Cambridge: The University press Publication. 2009: 89 [2013-02-04]. 
  2. ^ Peter Jackson, Lawrence Lockhart. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 6. Cambridge University Press. 1986: 1120 [2013-02-04]. ISBN 9780521200943. 
  3. ^ Alexander Mikaberidze. Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. 2011: 907 [2013-02-13]. ISBN 9781598843361. 
  4. ^ Peter Jackson, Lawrence Lockhart. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 6. Cambridge University Press. 1986: 173 [2013-02-13]. ISBN 9780521200943. 
  5. ^ Stevens, John. The history of Persia. Containing, the lives and memorable actions of its kings from the first erecting of that monarchy to this time; an exact Description of all its Dominions; a curious Account of India, China, Tartary, Kerman, Arabia, Nixabur, and the Islands of Ceylon and Timor; as also of all Cities occasionally mention'd, as Schiras, Samarkand, Bukhara, &c. Manners and Customs of those People, Persian Worshippers of Fire; Plants, Beasts, Product, and Trade. With many instructive and pleasant digressions, being remarkable Stories or Passages, occasionally occurring, as Strange Burials; Burning of the Dead; Liquors of several Countries; Hunting; Fishing; Practice of Physick; famous Physicians in the East; Actions of Tamerlan, &c. To which is added, an abridgment of the lives of the kings of Harmuz, or Ormuz. The Persian history written in Arabick, by Mirkond, a famous Eastern Author that of Ormuz, by Torunxa, King of that Island, both of them translated into Spanish, by Antony Teixeira, who liv'd several Years in Persia and India; and now render'd into English.
  6. ^ Babinger, Franz. Mehmed the Conqueror and his Time. Bollingen Series XCVI. ed. by William C. Hickman, trans. by Ralph Manheim. Princeton University Press. 1978: 314–315. ISBN 0-691-09900-6.