烟管蜗牛科

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烟管蜗牛科
Door snail.jpg
Cochlodina laminata
科学分类 编辑
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 軟體動物門 Mollusca
纲: 腹足纲 Gastropoda
目: 柄眼目 Stylommatophora
亚目: 旋蝸牛亞目 Helicina
下目: 烟管蜗牛下目 Clausilioidei
总科: 烟管蜗牛总科 Clausilioidea
科: 烟管蜗牛科 Clausiliidae
J. E. Gray, 1855[1]
模式属
烟管蜗牛属 Clausilia

烟管蜗牛科(學名:Clausiliidae),亦作烟管螺科密封蝸科,是烟管蜗牛总科之下的一種小型和非常長的科級分類。本科物種主要都是左旋物種的陸生蝸牛、會呼吸空氣的有肺類腹足綱軟體動物

本科舊屬中尿道目Mesurethra)、柄眼目泛有肺類真有肺類柄眼類非正式群組弯尿道類

截至2008年10月 (2008-10),本科連同現生種及化石種合共有1300個物種, this belong among the most diverse families of land gastropods (cf. Orthalicidae, although the marine gastropod family Pyramidellidae is larger).

Most species of Clausiliidae have an anatomical structure known as a clausilium, which enables the snail to close off the aperture of the shell with a sliding "door".

型態描述[编辑]

Megalophaedusa martensi is the largest species of the family Clausiliidae in the world. The individual in the photograph has a shell which is 45.5 mm long. The whole snail weighs 3.2 g live.

Almost all the species of snails in the family of door snails are left-handed, which is an uncommon feature in gastropod shells in general.

These snails have shells which are extremely high-spired, with numerous whorls.

The shells tend to be club-shaped, tapering at both ends to a rounded nub. The aperture usually has visible folds.

The clausilium[编辑]

The clausilium of Clausilia dubia

Clausiliids are also very unusual among pulmonate gastropods in that most of them have a "door" or clausilium. The clausilium is not the same thing as an operculum, which does not exist at all in pulmonate gastropods.

The clausilium is a calcareous structure, tongue-shaped or spoon-shaped, which can close the aperture of the snail shell to protect the soft parts against predation by animals such as carnivorous beetle larvae. The narrow end of the clausilium slides in the grooves that are formed by the folds on the inside of the shell.

生物學[编辑]

本科物種的染色體單倍體介乎21到30之間[2]:139,142

分類學[编辑]

本科的模式屬Clausilia Draparnaud, 1805

根據《布歇特和洛克羅伊的腹足類分類》,本科是彎尿道類非正式群組的成員,而這個群組是泛有肺類真有肺類演化支的成員[3]。在2017年尾的新分類,曲尿道類支序和泛有肺類都不再使用[4]

2005年分類[编辑]

根據《布歇特和洛克羅伊的腹足類分類》,本科包括下列各亞科:

烟管蜗牛亚科 Clausiliinae Gray, 1855

  • tribe Clausiliini Gray, 1855 - synonym: Fusulinae Lindholm, 1924
  • tribe Gracillariini H. Nordsieck, 1979

subfamily Alopiinae A. J. Wagner, 1913

  • tribe Alopiini A. J. Wagner, 1913
  • tribe Cochlodinini Lindholm, 1925 (1923) - synonym: Marpessinae Wenz, 1923
  • tribe Delimini Brandt, 1956 - synonym: Papilliferini Brandt, 1961 (n.a.)
  • tribe Medorini H. Nordsieck, 1997
  • tribe Montenegrinini H. Nordsieck, 1972

subfamily Baleinae A. J. Wagner, 1913 - synonyms: Laciniariini H. Nordsieck, 1963; Tristaniinae Schileyko, 1999

subfamily † Constrictinae H. Nordsieck, 1981[5]

subfamily Garnieriinae C. Boettger, 1926

  • tribe Garnieriini C. Boettger, 1926
  • tribe Tropidaucheniini H. Nordsieck, 2002

subfamily † Eualopiinae H. Nordsieck, 1978

  • tribe † Eualopiini H. Nordsieck, 1978[6]
  • tribe † Rillyini H. Nordsieck, 1985[7]

subfamily Laminiferinae Wenz, 1923

subfamily Mentissoideinae Lindholm, 1924

  • tribe Mentissoideini Lindholm, 1924 - synonym: Euxininae I. M. Likharev, 1962
  • tribe Acrotomini H. Nordsieck, 1979
  • tribe Boettgeriini H. Nordsieck, 1979
  • tribe Euxinellini Neubert, 2002
  • tribe Filosini H. Nordsieck, 1979
  • tribe Olympicolini Neubert, 2002
  • tribe Strigileuxinini H. Nordsieck, 1994
  • tribe Strumosini H. Nordsieck, 1994

subfamily Neniinae Wenz, 1923 - Neniastrinae H. B. Baker, 1930

subfamily Phaedusinae A. J. Wagner, 1922

  • tribe Phaedusini A. J. Wagner, 1922
  • tribe Megalophaedusini Zilch, 1954 - synonym: Zaptyxini Zilch, 1954

subfamily Serrulininae Ehrmann, 1927

2017年分類[编辑]

[编辑]

以下詳列本科之下各個亞科所屬的分類單元:

Clausiliinae[编辑]

tribe Clausiliini

tribe Gracillariini

Alopiinae[编辑]

Alopiinae[10]

tribe Alopiini

  • Alopia H. & A.Adams, 1855 - with two subgenera Alopia and Kimakowiczia Szekeres, 1969
  • Herilla H. & A. Adams, 1855
  • Triloba Vest, 1867

tribe Cochlodinini

  • Cochlodina A. Férussac, 1821 - with four subgenera: Cochlodina; Cochlodinastra H. Nordsieck, 1977; Paracochlodina H. Nordsieck, 1969; Procochlodina H. Nordsieck, 1969
  • Macedonica O. Boettger, 1877

tribe Delimini

  • Barcania Brandt, 1956
  • Charpentieria Stabille, 1864 - with four subgenera: Charpentieria; Gibbularia Monterosato, 1908; Mauritanica O. Boettger, 1877; Siciliaria Vest, 1867 and Stigmatica O. Boettger, 1877
  • Delima Hartmann, 1842 - with four subgenera: Delima; Dugiana Stamol & Slapnik, 2002; Piceata O. Boettger, 1877 and Semirugata O. Boettger, 1877
  • Dilataria Vest, 1867
  • Papillifera Hartmann, 1842

tribe Medorini H. Nordsieck, 1997

  • Agathylla H. & A.Adams, 1855 - with two subgenera Agathylla and Agathyllina H. Nordsieck, 1969
  • Albinaria Vest, 1867 - also include former genera Carinigera Moellendorff, 1873; Cristataria Vest, 1867; Isabellaria Vest, 1867; Sericata O. Boettger, 1878.
  • Inchoatia Gittenberger & Uit de Weerd, 2006[11]
  • Lampedusa - with two subgenera Imitatrix Westerlund, 1884 and Lampedusa
  • Leucostigma A. J. Wagner, 1919
  • Medora H. & A. Adams, 1855
  • Muticaria Lindholm, 1925
  • Strigilodelima A. J. Wagner, 1924

tribe Montenegrinini

Baleinae[编辑]

  • Alinda H. & A. Adams, 1855 - with two subgenera: Alinda and Pseudalinda O. Boettger, 1877
  • Balea J. E. Gray, 1824
  • Bulgarica O. Boettger, 1877 - with three subgenera Bulgarica, Pavlovicia H. Nordsieck, 1973 and Strigilecula Kennard & Woodward, 1923
  • Lacinaria Hartmann, 1842
  • Likharevia H. Nordsieck, 1975
  • Menissa H. & A.Adams, 1855
  • Mentissella H. Nordsieck, 1973
  • Micropontica O. Boettger, 1881 - with two subgenera: Baleopsina Lindholm, 1924 and Micropontica
  • Mucronaria O. Boettger, 1877 - with two subgenera: Index O. Boettger, 1877 and Mucronaria
  • Quadriplicata O. Boettger, 1878
  • Vestia Hesse, 1916 - with three subgenera: Brabenecia H. Nordsieck, 1974; Vestia and Vestiella H. Nordsieck, 1877

Constrictinae[编辑]

Fossil subfamily Constrictinae contains genera:

  • Constricta O. Boettger, 1877 - type genus of the subfamily[3]

Garnieriinae[编辑]

Eualopiinae[编辑]

Fossil subfamily Eualopiinae contains genera:

tribe † Eualopiini

  • Eualopia O. Boettger, 1877 - type genus of the subfamily[3]

tribe † Rillyini

  • Rillya Munier-Chalmas [in P. Fischer], 1883 - type genus of the tribe[3]

Laminiferinae[编辑]

  • Laminifera O. Boettger, 1863 - the type genus of the family Laminiferinae.[3] Its type species is fossil.[3] (Actual status of the genus?)
  • Bofilliella Ehrmann, 1927
  • Neniatlanta Bouguignat, 1876

Mentissoideinae[编辑]

  • Acrotoma O. Boettger, 1881 - with four subgenera: Acrotoma, Acrotomina H. Nordsieck, 1977; Bzybia H. Nordsieck, 1977 and Castelliana Suvorov, 2002
  • Akramowskia H. Nordsieck, 1975
  • Armenica O. Boettger, 1877 - with two subgenera: Armenica and Astrogena Szekeres, 1970
  • Bitorquata O. Boettger, 1877
  • Boettgeria O. Boettger, 1863 - with two subgenera: Boettgeriaand Loosjesiella Neubert & Groh, 1998
  • Elia H. & A.Adams, 1855 - with four subgenera: Acroeuxina O. Boettger, 1877; Caucasica O. Boettger, 1877; Elia and Megaleuxina O. Boettger, 1877
  • Euxina O. Boettger, 1877 - with two subgenera: Euxina and Illunellaria Lindholm, 1924
  • Euxinastra O. Boettger, 1888 - with two subgenera: Euxinastra and Odonteuxina H. Nordsieck, 1875
  • Euxinella H. Nordsieck, 1973
  • Filosa O. Boettger, 1877
  • Galeata O. Boettger, 1877
  • Idyla H. & A. Adams, 1855 - with two subgenera: Idyla and Strigilidyla H. Nordsieck, 1994
  • Kazancia Neubert, 1992 - with two subgenera: Kazancia and Lasica Neubert, 1995
  • Macroptychia O. Boettger, 1877
  • Mentissoidea O. Boettger, 1877
  • Olympicola Hesse, 1916
  • Phrygica H. Nordsieck, 1994
  • Roseniella Thiele, 1931 - with two subgenera: Chavchetia Neubert, 1992 and Roseniella
  • Sabaeola Lindholm, 1925
  • Sprattia O. Boettger, 1883
  • Strigileuxina H. Nordsieck, 1975
  • Strumosa O. Boettger, 1877
  • Sumelia H. Nordsieck, 1994

大口管螺亚科[编辑]

大口管螺亚科Neniinae Ehrmann, 1927)主要分佈於南美洲,但亦有少数分佈於中国南部、南亚及东南亚,包括以下各屬[13]

管螺亚科[编辑]

管螺亚科Phaedusinae Thiele, 1931)包括以下各屬[14]

管螺族 Phaedusini

  • 管螺属 Phaedusa H. & A.Adams, 1855 - with four subgenera: Metaphaedusa H. Nordsieck, 2001; Phaedusa; Pseudophaedusa Tomiyama, 1984 and Stereophaedusa O. Boettger, 1877

tribe Megalophaedusini

  • Leptacme Ehrmann, 1927[15]
  • Oospira Blanford, 1872[15] - with five subgenera: Atractophaedusa Ehrmann, 1927; Formosana O. Boettger, 1877; Formosanella H. Nordsieck, 2003; Oospira; Paraformosella H. Nordsieck, 2003 and Siphonophaedusa Lindholm, 1924
  • Zaptyx Pilsbry, 1901 - with two subgenera: Prozaptyx Loosjes, 1950 and Zaptyx

tribe ?

Serrulininae[编辑]

保育[编辑]

儘管非海洋軟體動物 appear to be exceptionally vulnerable to extinction[18], the IUCN Red list listed only 9 species[19] from this family.

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ J. E. Gray. April 14, 1855. Catalogue of Pulmonata or air-breathing Mollusca in the collection of the British Museum, Part I: 156.
  2. ^ The biology of terrestrial molluscsGoogle Books
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Frýda, J.; Hausdorf, B.; Ponder, W.; Valdés, Á.; Warén, A. Bouchet P.; Rocroi J.-P., 编. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology (Hackenheim, Germany / Ann Arbor, USA: ConchBooks). 2005, 47 (1-2): 397 pp. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997. 
  4. ^ Bouchet, P.; Rocroi, J.P.; Hausdorf, B.; Kaim    , A.; Kano    , Y.; Nützel  , A.; Parkhaev, P.; Schrödl, M.; Strong  , E.E. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia. 2017, 61 (1-2): 1–526. doi:10.4002/040.061.0201 (英语). 
  5. ^ Nordsieck H. (1981). Archiv für Molluskenkunde 111(1-3): 101.
  6. ^ Nordsieck H. (1978). Archiv für Molluskenkunde 109(1-3): 104.
  7. ^ Nordsieck H. (1985). Heldia 1(3): 83.
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 "Clausiliini". Fauna Europaea, last update 27 January 2011, accessed 27 April 2011.
  9. ^ "Graciliaria". Fauna Europaea, last update 27 January 2011, accessed 27 April 2011.
  10. ^ Uit de Weerd D. R. (2004). "Molecular phylogenetic history of eastern Mediterranean Alopiinae, a group of morphologically indeterminate land snails". Doctoral thesis, Leiden University, ISBN 90-6464-874-3.
  11. ^ Gittenberger E. & Uit de Weerd D. R. (2009). "Summarizing data on the Inchoatia taxa, including Inchoatia megdova bruggeni subspec. nov. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Clausiliidae)" Zoologische Mededelingen 83 http://www.zoologischemededelingen.nl/83/nr03/a08
  12. ^ Family: CLAUSILIIDAE. WMSD - Worldwide mollusc species DB. [2018-04-02] (英语). 
  13. ^ 大口管螺亚科 Neniinae. 《中国动物志 无脊椎动物》 第七卷. [2018-04-02] (中文(简体)‎). 
  14. ^ 管螺亚科 Phaedusinae. 《中国动物志 无脊椎动物》 第七卷. [2018-04-02] (中文(简体)‎). 
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 Maassen W. J. M. & Gittenberger E. (2007). "Three new clausiliid land snails from Tonkin, northern Vietnam (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Clausiliidae)". Zoologische Mededelingen 81(1): http://www.zoologischemededelingen.nl/81/nr01/a10
  16. ^ 真管螺属 Euphaedusa. 《中国动物志 无脊椎动物》 第七卷. [2018-04-02] (中文(简体)‎). 
  17. ^ cf. Nordsieck H. (2006). "Species list of recent Clausiliidae".
  18. ^ Lydeard, C.; Cowie  , R.; Ponder  , W.F.; 等. The global decline of nonmarine mollusks (PDF). BioScience. 2004-04, 54: 321–330 [2009-10-20]. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[0321:TGDONM]2.0.CO;2. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2007-03-31) (英语). 
  19. ^ IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 5 March 2010.

延伸閱讀[编辑]

外部連結[编辑]