烟管蜗牛科

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烟管蜗牛科
Door snail.jpg
Cochlodina laminata
科学分类 编辑
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 軟體動物門 Mollusca
纲: 腹足纲 Gastropoda
目: 柄眼目 Stylommatophora
亚目: 旋蝸牛亞目 Helicina
下目: 烟管蜗牛下目 Clausilioidei
总科: 烟管蜗牛总科 Clausilioidea
科: 烟管蜗牛科 Clausiliidae
J. E. Gray, 1855[1]
模式属
烟管蜗牛属 Clausilia

烟管蜗牛科(學名:Clausiliidae),亦作烟管螺科[2]密封蝸科,是烟管蜗牛总科之下的一種小型和非常長的科級分類。本科物種主要都是左旋物種的陸生蝸牛、會呼吸空氣的有肺類腹足綱軟體動物

本科舊屬柄眼目中尿道亞目Mesurethra[3]泛有肺類真有肺類柄眼類非正式群組弯尿道類

截至2008年10月 (2008-10),本科連同現生種及化石種合共有1300個物種,是陸生蝸牛當中其生物多樣性最高的分類單元(參照Orthalicidae,在整個腹足綱來說也只是僅次於海生的小塔螺科)。

本科物種在台灣的名稱叫作「烟管蝸牛科」,這是得名於其殻口的獨特「烟管」解剖結構,叫作「腔襞[4]:116,讓牠們可以將牠們的口蓋英语aperture (mollusc)變得可以像一扇趟門那樣把殻口關閉起來。

型態描述[编辑]

Megalophaedusa martensi is the largest species of the family Clausiliidae in the world. The individual in the photograph has a shell which is 45.5 mm long. The whole snail weighs 3.2 g live.

Almost all the species of snails in the family of door snails are left-handed, which is an uncommon feature in gastropod shells in general.

These snails have shells which are extremely high-spired, with numerous whorls.

The shells tend to be club-shaped, tapering at both ends to a rounded nub. The aperture usually has visible folds.

「烟管」[编辑]

Clausilia dubia的「烟管」構造。

烟管蜗牛科物種在肺螺類腹足綱軟體動物來說相當特殊,因為牠們大多數的殻口都有稱為「腔襞」的類似「烟管」構造,就像一扇趟門一樣。這種「烟管」與口蓋英语Operculum (gastropod)並不一樣,因為在肺螺類物種都已有外套膜肺,並沒有「口蓋」這種構造。

腔襞是一種石灰質構造,舌形或調匙形,可將其殻口完全關閉,以防止肉食性的甲蟲幼蟲入侵其柔軟的身體。腔襞有不同的形態,如「月形」[4]:116或「弓形」[5]腔襞、「倒C形腔襞」[4]:124、「工形腔襞」[4]:118、「平行腔襞」[4]:128等,還可以分為多個部分,如:上腔襞、下腔襞、月形襞及主襞等[4]:116。腔襞有「閉板」及「腔襞板」(clausilium slides)將其封閉:「閉板」是附生於殻軸的板狀構造,而腔襞板則是殻內壁的板狀突起[4]:116,由殻壁摺疊而形成。

生物學[编辑]

本科物種的染色體單倍體介乎21到30之間[6]:139,142

分類學[编辑]

本科的模式屬Clausilia Draparnaud, 1805

根據《布歇特和洛克羅伊的腹足類分類》,本科是彎尿道類非正式群組的成員,而這個群組是泛有肺類真有肺類演化支的成員[7]。在2017年尾的新分類,曲尿道類支序和泛有肺類都不再使用[8]

2005年分類[编辑]

根據《布歇特和洛克羅伊的腹足類分類》,本科包括下列各亞科:

烟管蜗牛亚科 Clausiliinae Gray, 1855

  • tribe Clausiliini Gray, 1855 - synonym: Fusulinae Lindholm, 1924
  • tribe Gracillariini H. Nordsieck, 1979

subfamily Alopiinae A. J. Wagner, 1913

  • tribe Alopiini A. J. Wagner, 1913
  • tribe Cochlodinini Lindholm, 1925 (1923) - synonym: Marpessinae Wenz, 1923
  • tribe Delimini Brandt, 1956 - synonym: Papilliferini Brandt, 1961 (n.a.)
  • tribe Medorini H. Nordsieck, 1997
  • tribe Montenegrinini H. Nordsieck, 1972

subfamily Baleinae A. J. Wagner, 1913 - synonyms: Laciniariini H. Nordsieck, 1963; Tristaniinae Schileyko, 1999

subfamily † Constrictinae H. Nordsieck, 1981[9]

subfamily Garnieriinae C. Boettger, 1926

  • tribe Garnieriini C. Boettger, 1926
  • tribe Tropidaucheniini H. Nordsieck, 2002

subfamily † Eualopiinae H. Nordsieck, 1978

  • tribe † Eualopiini H. Nordsieck, 1978[10]
  • tribe † Rillyini H. Nordsieck, 1985[11]

subfamily Laminiferinae Wenz, 1923

subfamily Mentissoideinae Lindholm, 1924

  • tribe Mentissoideini Lindholm, 1924 - synonym: Euxininae I. M. Likharev, 1962
  • tribe Acrotomini H. Nordsieck, 1979
  • tribe Boettgeriini H. Nordsieck, 1979
  • tribe Euxinellini Neubert, 2002
  • tribe Filosini H. Nordsieck, 1979
  • tribe Olympicolini Neubert, 2002
  • tribe Strigileuxinini H. Nordsieck, 1994
  • tribe Strumosini H. Nordsieck, 1994

subfamily Neniinae Wenz, 1923 - Neniastrinae H. B. Baker, 1930

subfamily Phaedusinae A. J. Wagner, 1922

  • tribe Phaedusini A. J. Wagner, 1922
  • tribe Megalophaedusini Zilch, 1954 - synonym: Zaptyxini Zilch, 1954

subfamily Serrulininae Ehrmann, 1927

2017年分類[编辑]

[编辑]

以下詳列本科之下各個亞科所屬的分類單元:

烟管蜗牛亚科[编辑]

烟管蜗牛亚科Clausiliinae)包括以下兩族:

Alopiinae[编辑]

Alopiinae[14]

tribe Alopiini

  • Alopia H. & A.Adams, 1855 - with two subgenera Alopia and Kimakowiczia Szekeres, 1969
  • Herilla H. & A. Adams, 1855
  • Triloba Vest, 1867

tribe Cochlodinini

  • Cochlodina A. Férussac, 1821 - with four subgenera: Cochlodina; Cochlodinastra H. Nordsieck, 1977; Paracochlodina H. Nordsieck, 1969; Procochlodina H. Nordsieck, 1969
  • Macedonica O. Boettger, 1877

tribe Delimini

  • Barcania Brandt, 1956
  • Charpentieria Stabille, 1864 - with four subgenera: Charpentieria; Gibbularia Monterosato, 1908; Mauritanica O. Boettger, 1877; Siciliaria Vest, 1867 and Stigmatica O. Boettger, 1877
  • Delima Hartmann, 1842 - with four subgenera: Delima; Dugiana Stamol & Slapnik, 2002; Piceata O. Boettger, 1877 and Semirugata O. Boettger, 1877
  • Dilataria Vest, 1867
  • Papillifera Hartmann, 1842

tribe Medorini H. Nordsieck, 1997

  • Agathylla H. & A.Adams, 1855 - with two subgenera Agathylla and Agathyllina H. Nordsieck, 1969
  • Albinaria Vest, 1867 - also include former genera Carinigera Moellendorff, 1873; Cristataria Vest, 1867; Isabellaria Vest, 1867; Sericata O. Boettger, 1878.
  • Inchoatia Gittenberger & Uit de Weerd, 2006[15]
  • Lampedusa - with two subgenera Imitatrix Westerlund, 1884 and Lampedusa
  • Leucostigma A. J. Wagner, 1919
  • Medora H. & A. Adams, 1855
  • Muticaria Lindholm, 1925
  • Strigilodelima A. J. Wagner, 1924

tribe Montenegrinini

Baleinae[编辑]

  • Alinda H. & A. Adams, 1855 - with two subgenera: Alinda and Pseudalinda O. Boettger, 1877
  • Balea J. E. Gray, 1824
  • Bulgarica O. Boettger, 1877 - with three subgenera Bulgarica, Pavlovicia H. Nordsieck, 1973 and Strigilecula Kennard & Woodward, 1923
  • Lacinaria Hartmann, 1842
  • Likharevia H. Nordsieck, 1975
  • Menissa H. & A.Adams, 1855
  • Mentissella H. Nordsieck, 1973
  • Micropontica O. Boettger, 1881 - with two subgenera: Baleopsina Lindholm, 1924 and Micropontica
  • Mucronaria O. Boettger, 1877 - with two subgenera: Index O. Boettger, 1877 and Mucronaria
  • Quadriplicata O. Boettger, 1878
  • Vestia Hesse, 1916 - with three subgenera: Brabenecia H. Nordsieck, 1974; Vestia and Vestiella H. Nordsieck, 1877

Constrictinae[编辑]

Fossil subfamily Constrictinae contains genera:

  • Constricta O. Boettger, 1877 - type genus of the subfamily[7]

Garnieriinae[编辑]

Eualopiinae[编辑]

Fossil subfamily Eualopiinae contains genera:

tribe † Eualopiini

  • Eualopia O. Boettger, 1877 - type genus of the subfamily[7]

tribe † Rillyini

  • Rillya Munier-Chalmas [in P. Fischer], 1883 - type genus of the tribe[7]

Laminiferinae[编辑]

  • Laminifera O. Boettger, 1863 - the type genus of the family Laminiferinae.[7] Its type species is fossil.[7] (Actual status of the genus?)
  • Bofilliella Ehrmann, 1927
  • Neniatlanta Bouguignat, 1876

Mentissoideinae[编辑]

  • Acrotoma O. Boettger, 1881 - with four subgenera: Acrotoma, Acrotomina H. Nordsieck, 1977; Bzybia H. Nordsieck, 1977 and Castelliana Suvorov, 2002
  • Akramowskia H. Nordsieck, 1975
  • Armenica O. Boettger, 1877 - with two subgenera: Armenica and Astrogena Szekeres, 1970
  • Bitorquata O. Boettger, 1877
  • Boettgeria O. Boettger, 1863 - with two subgenera: Boettgeriaand Loosjesiella Neubert & Groh, 1998
  • Elia H. & A.Adams, 1855 - with four subgenera: Acroeuxina O. Boettger, 1877; Caucasica O. Boettger, 1877; Elia and Megaleuxina O. Boettger, 1877
  • Euxina O. Boettger, 1877 - with two subgenera: Euxina and Illunellaria Lindholm, 1924
  • Euxinastra O. Boettger, 1888 - with two subgenera: Euxinastra and Odonteuxina H. Nordsieck, 1875
  • Euxinella H. Nordsieck, 1973
  • Filosa O. Boettger, 1877
  • Galeata O. Boettger, 1877
  • Idyla H. & A. Adams, 1855 - with two subgenera: Idyla and Strigilidyla H. Nordsieck, 1994
  • Kazancia Neubert, 1992 - with two subgenera: Kazancia and Lasica Neubert, 1995
  • Macroptychia O. Boettger, 1877
  • Mentissoidea O. Boettger, 1877
  • Olympicola Hesse, 1916
  • Phrygica H. Nordsieck, 1994
  • Roseniella Thiele, 1931 - with two subgenera: Chavchetia Neubert, 1992 and Roseniella
  • Sabaeola Lindholm, 1925
  • Sprattia O. Boettger, 1883
  • Strigileuxina H. Nordsieck, 1975
  • Strumosa O. Boettger, 1877
  • Sumelia H. Nordsieck, 1994

大口管螺亚科[编辑]

大口管螺亚科Neniinae Ehrmann, 1927)主要分佈於南美洲,但亦有少数分佈於中国南部、南亚及东南亚,包括以下各屬[17]

管螺亚科[编辑]

管螺亚科Phaedusinae Thiele, 1931)包括以下各屬[18]

管螺族 Phaedusini

  • 管螺属 Phaedusa H. & A.Adams, 1855 - with four subgenera: Metaphaedusa H. Nordsieck, 2001; Phaedusa; Pseudophaedusa Tomiyama, 1984 and Stereophaedusa O. Boettger, 1877

tribe Megalophaedusini

  • Leptacme Ehrmann, 1927[19]
  • Oospira Blanford, 1872[19] - with five subgenera: Atractophaedusa Ehrmann, 1927; Formosana O. Boettger, 1877; Formosanella H. Nordsieck, 2003; Oospira; Paraformosella H. Nordsieck, 2003 and Siphonophaedusa Lindholm, 1924
  • Zaptyx Pilsbry, 1901 - with two subgenera: Prozaptyx Loosjes, 1950 and Zaptyx

tribe ?

Serrulininae[编辑]

保育[编辑]

儘管非海洋軟體動物當中本科物種看似易危[22],但在《國際自然保護聯盟瀕危物種紅色名錄》只有9個本科的物種被列入名錄內[23]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ J. E. Gray. April 14, 1855. Catalogue of Pulmonata or air-breathing Mollusca in the collection of the British Museum, Part I: 156.
  2. ^ 皱纹岛管螺. 科学数据库-中国动物主题数据库-中国动物物种编目数据库. [2018-06-11] (中文(简体)‎). 
  3. ^ Mesurethra. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (英语). 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 蝸牛不思議
  5. ^ 陳德牛; 張國慶 (编). 德氏拟管螺 Hemiphaedusa draesekei Blume. 中國動物志. 无脊椎动物 第十九卷:软体动物门.腹足纲 柄眼目 烟管螺科. 1999 [2018-07-16] (中文(简体)‎). 
  6. ^ The biology of terrestrial molluscsGoogle Books
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Frýda, J.; Hausdorf, B.; Ponder, W.; Valdés, Á.; Warén, A. Bouchet P.; Rocroi J.-P., 编. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology (Hackenheim, Germany / Ann Arbor, USA: ConchBooks). 2005, 47 (1-2): 397 pp. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997. 
  8. ^ Bouchet, P.; Rocroi, J.P.; Hausdorf, B.; Kaim    , A.; Kano    , Y.; Nützel  , A.; Parkhaev, P.; Schrödl, M.; Strong  , E.E. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia. 2017, 61 (1-2): 1–526. doi:10.4002/040.061.0201 (英语). 
  9. ^ Nordsieck H. (1981). Archiv für Molluskenkunde 111(1-3): 101.
  10. ^ Nordsieck H. (1978). Archiv für Molluskenkunde 109(1-3): 104.
  11. ^ Nordsieck H. (1985). Heldia 1(3): 83.
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 "Clausiliini". Fauna Europaea, last update 27 January 2011, accessed 27 April 2011.
  13. ^ "Graciliaria". Fauna Europaea, last update 27 January 2011, accessed 27 April 2011.
  14. ^ Uit de Weerd D. R. (2004). "Molecular phylogenetic history of eastern Mediterranean Alopiinae, a group of morphologically indeterminate land snails". Doctoral thesis, Leiden University, ISBN 90-6464-874-3.
  15. ^ Gittenberger E. & Uit de Weerd D. R. (2009). "Summarizing data on the Inchoatia taxa, including Inchoatia megdova bruggeni subspec. nov. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Clausiliidae)" Zoologische Mededelingen 83 http://www.zoologischemededelingen.nl/83/nr03/a08
  16. ^ Family: CLAUSILIIDAE. WMSD - Worldwide mollusc species DB. [2018-04-02] (英语). 
  17. ^ 大口管螺亚科 Neniinae. 《中国动物志 无脊椎动物》 第七卷. [2018-04-02] (中文(简体)‎). [失效連結]
  18. ^ 管螺亚科 Phaedusinae. 《中国动物志 无脊椎动物》 第七卷. [2018-04-02] (中文(简体)‎). [失效連結]
  19. ^ 19.0 19.1 Maassen W. J. M. & Gittenberger E. (2007). "Three new clausiliid land snails from Tonkin, northern Vietnam (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Clausiliidae)". Zoologische Mededelingen 81(1): http://www.zoologischemededelingen.nl/81/nr01/a10
  20. ^ 真管螺属 Euphaedusa. 《中国动物志 无脊椎动物》 第七卷. [2018-04-02] (中文(简体)‎). [失效連結]
  21. ^ cf. Nordsieck H. (2006). "Species list of recent Clausiliidae".
  22. ^ Lydeard, C.; Cowie  , R.; Ponder  , W.F.; 等. The global decline of nonmarine mollusks (PDF). BioScience. 2004-04, 54: 321–330 [2009-10-20]. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[0321:TGDONM]2.0.CO;2. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2007-03-31) (英语).  |author=|last1=只需其一 (帮助); |archiveurl=|archive-url=只需其一 (帮助); |accessdate=|access-date=只需其一 (帮助); |archivedate=|archive-date=只需其一 (帮助)
  23. ^ IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 5 March 2010.

延伸閱讀[编辑]

外部連結[编辑]