無政府狀態

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索

無政府狀態(英語:Anarchy)是指一個不存在權威或者政府的社會。這一詞也可以形容反對等級制度的社會和持這一立場的團體[1]。無政府狀態一詞的對應英語單詞Anarchy最早出現於1539年[2] ,而Anarchy一詞始於中世紀拉丁語詞彙anarchia和希臘語詞彙anarchos,意為「無統治者」[2]皮埃爾-約瑟夫·普魯東在他1840年的著作《什么是所有权?》中第一次正式使用无政府状态和无政府主义者指代与无政府主义相关的事物[3][4][5],无政府主义是一种新的、拥护基于無國家社會自由英语Free association (Marxism and anarchism)自发的联合体政治哲学社會運動。无政府主义者寻求一种废除所有强制性等级制度——特别是国家——的新制度,其中许多人主张建立基于直接民主工人合作社英语worker cooperative的新制度[6][7]

在日常的使用中,无政府状态可以指缩减或废除传统形式的政府制度后的新制度,也可以指一个没有政府系统或中央统治的国家或其他有人居住的地方。无政府状态主要由要求用自愿组成的组织取代政府的个人无政府主义者所倡导,这些组织往往参照了自然界本身所具有的社区封閉經濟互相依赖英语interdependence个人主义等概念。尽管无政府状态常被消极地用作混乱或社会崩溃英语societal collapse同义词,但这并不同于无政府主义者所赋予无政府状态,一个没有等级制度的社会的含义[1]。蒲鲁东曾在著作中写道“自由原是秩序的母亲,但不是她的女儿”[8][9]

词源[编辑]

圆圈A是无政府主义的代表符号

英语中“anarchy”一词源于中世纪拉丁语的“anarchia”一词和希腊语的“anarchos”(意为“没有统治者”)一词,后者由否定性前缀“a-英语alpha privative”和“archos”(意为“统治者”)两部分组合而成,字面意义即为“没有统治者”[2]無政府主義的象徵之一的圆圈A由大写字母“A”和大写字母“O”组成,其中「A」代表眾多歐洲語言的「無政府主義」或「無政府狀態」的首個字母,西里尔字母拉丁字母的相關用詞也有以A開頭的傾向。「O」則指秩序(order),合起來即表示皮埃爾-約瑟夫·普魯東曾在《什么是所有权?》一书所写的「社会在无政府状态中寻求秩序[5](法語:la société cherche l'ordre dans l'anarchie[3][4])」。

1902年,马君武翻译了托马斯·柯卡普(克喀伯)的《俄罗斯大风潮》一书,并在书中将“anarchy”一词直译为无政府[10],《俄罗斯大风尚》也是目前在中国最早介绍无政府主义思想的书籍之一[11][12]

概述[编辑]

人类学[编辑]

狩猎采集者常被认为居住于无政府状态之中

尽管当今世界各地基本都存在阶级制度或者国家制度,但人类学家已从考古学记录中发现了许多平等的无国家社会,如狩獵採集社会[13][14]閃邁人皮亚罗亚人英语Piaroa的园艺社会。其中又有许多社会可以被进一步认为是无政府社会,因为它们明确拒绝集中政治权力的想法[15][16]

从进化的角度来看,秉持平等主义的人类狩猎采集社会是人类史上很特别的一段时间。与人类相比,人类的近亲黑猩猩一直秉持完全不平等、由雄性首领英语Dominance hierarchy主导的阶级制度。由于黑猩猩的这套制度与人类狩猎采集社会的制度差距很大,古人类学家普遍认为,对被支配的抵抗推动了人类意识、语言、亲属关系和社会组织的发展[17][18][19]

在《无政府主义人类学碎片英语Fragments of an Anarchist Anthropology》一书中,无政府人类学家大卫·格雷伯试图勾勒出知识分子在研究无政府主义的社会理论的凝聚力方面可以尝试的研究领域,同时认为“这正是人类学特别能帮上忙的地方”[20],因为人类学这一学科的主要内容即为观察人类组织社会和社会活动的方方面面,研究、分析和编排世界各地的不同形式的社会和经济结构,以及最重要的,向全世界展示其中最适合人类的社会组织形式[21]

在《反国家社会英语Society Against the State[22]一书中,皮埃尔·科拉特雷斯英语Pierre Clastres对无国家社会进行了研究,在这些社会中,某些文化习俗和态度阻止了等级制度和国家的发展。科拉特雷斯在书中否定了国家是人类社会进化的自然结果这一观点[23]

在《逃避统治的艺术英语The Art of Not Being Governed》一书中,詹姆士·斯科特英语James C. Scott赞米亚进行了研究,赞米亚是指一大片位于东南亚山地且长期处于无国家状态的地理区域。赞米亚的山地将其与低地的国家分离,制造了一片可供逃避者避难的避难区。斯科特在书中认为山人英语hill people的特殊社会特征和文化特征是为了躲避低地国家的抓捕而发展出的,不应被视为被低地文明遗弃的野蛮遗迹[24][25]

彼得·利森英语Peter Leeson研究了十八世纪的海盗、未开化的原始部落成员和加利福尼亚监狱黑帮的私人执法英语private law enforcement机构后发现,这些团体采用了各不相同的私人执法方法,以满足他们的具体需求并维持整个组织处于无政府状态[26]

无政府原始主义者基于人类学对狩猎采集社会的研究对现代文明进行批判,同时指出人类的自我驯化[27]可能导致了疾病、劳动、不平等、战争和心理疾病的蔓延[28][29][30]。包括約翰·哲忍英语John Zerzan在内的一批作家认为,人们对原始社会的刻板印象(如原始社会一定是暴力又茹毛饮血的社会)被用来为现代工业社会的价值观辩护,同时导致个人进一步远离更自然、更公平的社会[31][32]

国际关系[编辑]

国际关系中,无政府状态是指“没有任何高于民族国家的、能够仲裁争端和执行国际法的权威机构”这一状态[33][34][35]

政治哲学[编辑]

无政府主义[编辑]

作为一种政治哲学,无政府主义主张建立在自愿结社基础上的自治社会。尽管一些作家将其拥护的自治社会更具体地定义为基于非等级制度自由人联合体英语Free association (Marxism and anarchism)制度的社会[36][37][38][39],这些社会仍常被描述为無國家社會[40][41][42][43]。无政府主义认为国家制度对人民有害,本身没有存在的必要[44][45]。虽然反对国家制度是无政府主义的核心,但它仍是判定某一思想是否属于无政府主义的必要不充分条件[46][47][48],这也是为什么尽管無政府資本主義[49][50][51][52]民族無政府主義[53][54][55][56]在自己的名字中带有无政府主义但仍不被认为是無政府主義學派英语anarchist schools of thought无政府主义运动一部分、甚至被无政府主义者和学者认为是带有欺骗性[57][58][59]或本身就是矛盾的术语的原因[60][61][62][63][64][65]。无政府主义要求在人们处理人际关系时尽可能地排除权威或具有等级制度的组织英语hierarchical organisation(包括但不限于国家制度)的干预[37][66][67][68][69][70][71][72]

无政府主义分为许多不同的类型和学派,尽管各类无政府主义学说的理论基础扎根广泛,遍布极端的个人主义至极端的集体主义之间[45],但彼此之间并不都相互排斥[73]。总体来说,无政府主义常被划分为個人無政府主義社會無政府主義两大类,或者其他类似这样的二元划分[74][75][76]。无政府主义常被认为是一种激进的英语Radical politics左派極左派运动[77][78][79],许多無政府主義經濟學英语anarchist economics无政府主义法律英语anarchist law反映了其与共产主义互助主义英语Mutualism (economic theory)工团主义一般对左翼和社会主义[80][81][82][83][84][85]政治做出了具体的阐释——从反权威主义反國家主義自由意志主義角度进行的阐释[86],以这一角度进行阐释的无政府主义的自由意志社會主義分支和社会主义政治经济学相关理论包括集體無政府主義自由市场无政府主义英语free-market anarchism綠色無政府主義参与型经济。在无政府主义内部,一些个人无政府主义者支持部分共产主义的理论,同时一些无政府共产主义者也支持部分个人主义[87][88]利己主义英语Egoist anarchism[89][90]的理论,个人无政府主义与社会无政府主义相较而言,前者更为强调个人自由和人类的理性本质,而后者则认为个人自由本质上与社会平等有关,因此更为强调组建社群和互助的重要性[91]

与其他的社會運動一样,无政府主义亦时而受人欢迎,时而遭到人们厌恶。在无政府主义中,群众社会运动派一直由無政府共產主義无政府工团主义领导,而个人无政府主义更多的是一种文学思想[92],而社会无政府主义自19世纪末无政府共产主义取代集体无政府主义[93]成为无政府主义的主流思潮后才从个人无政府主义中分离而出[49][50][51][52]。尽管如此,个人无政府主义的确对各类无政府主义学派产生了影响[94],许多个人无政府主义者亦参与了大型的无政府主义组织[95][96]。一些无政府主义者认同基于自卫英语self-defense非暴力和平主義,他们被称作無政府和平主義者[97][98],同时另一些人则支持在通往无政府主义社会的道路上使用包括革命行動宣傳在内的激进策略英语militant[99]

自19世纪90年代以来,“自由意志主义”一词开始被用作“无政府主义”一词的同义词[100][101],直到20世纪中期随着右派自由意志主義美国的古典自由主义者英语classical liberals in the United States开始将自己描述为“自由意志主义者”后,“自由意志主义”和“无政府主义”两词才不再完全相同的混用。此后,古典自由个人主义自由市場资本主义哲学开始被与无政府主义明确地区分开来[102][103][104],前者被称为“右派自由意志主义”[105],而后者被称为“左派自由意志主义英语left-libertarianism[105]、“自由意志社会主义”[106][107]或“社会自由意志主义”[105]。右派自由意志主义者又可进一步细分为无政府资本主义者、小政府主义者自愿主义者英语Voluntaryism[102][103]英语世界[108][109][110][111],“自由意志主义”一词在使用中仍常用于指代无政府主义[112][113]反資本主義[114]、自由意志社会主义[115][116][117]和社会无政府主义[118][119]

部分国家崩溃后的无政府状态的例子[编辑]

英国内战(1642–1651)[编辑]

英国内战发生时,欧洲大陆的许多地区在三十年戰爭中已经度过了超过20年的近无政府状态

无政府状态是普特尼辩论英语Putney Debates上的一个议题:

托马斯·雷恩巴勒英语Thomas Rainsborough:“今天我会比之前更开放、更口无遮拦地与你们继续交流。我希望我们都是心地善良的人,希望我们都能以正直的态度对待自己。如果我真的不信任你,我就不会用这种断言。不过我确实认为我们现在讨论的问题是一个不信任的问题,因为人们太容易把事情想得太简单,而有些时候事情要复杂得多。就我而言,我认为你忘记了我演讲中的一些内容,你不仅自己认为有些人认为政府永远是不正确的,而且你讨厌所有相信这些的人。而且,先生,就因为一个人认为人人都应有选举权,你就说这会毁掉一切财产权——这是在忽略上帝的律法,因为在上帝的律法中已经规定了所有权;不然上帝为何说‘汝不可行窃?’难道说,因为我是个穷人,所以我就必须受到压迫,因为我在这个王国中没有财产,我就必须承受这个王国的所有律法,无论他们对错吗?或者这样说:假如有一个住在乡镇的,和他人一样有三四块庄园领地(天知道他们怎么拿到这些土地的)的乡绅,当要选举议会的时候,他必然会成为议会代表;这时如果他看到一些在自己门口住的穷人,他就会去压榨他们——我知道有大批这样的穷人被轰出门外无家可归,我非常清楚这些是那些富人做的,以让这些穷人承受世界上最残酷的暴政。所以我认为这个问题已经得到了充分地解答:上帝把这件事与他的这条律法规定在一起,即汝不可行窃。就我而言,我反对任何这种支持这种有人没有选举权的想法,至于你们自己,我只希望你们不要让世界觉得我们是支持无政府状态的。”
奥利弗·克伦威尔:“我只知道,善于让步的人有着大智慧。不过,先生,这些条例并不像它们看起来那么好。而且,没人说你支持无政府状态,只是这些条例很可能甚至一定会导致无政府状态。因为如果你取消了财产限制,那么就会导致除了呼吸的利益之外没有任何利益的人在选举中也有发言权,那么哪里还有什么约束或限制?不过,我还是坚信我们不必如此针锋相对。”[120]

随着人们开始对英国内战进行理论研究,无政府状态开始从不同的政治角度得到更明确的定义:

  • 1651年,托马斯·霍布斯在《利维坦》一书中将自然狀態描述为所有人對所有人的戰爭的状态,人类在这种状态下过着野蛮的生活:“美洲有许多地方的野蛮民族除开小家族以外并无其他政府,而小家族的协调又完全取决于自然欲望,他们今天还生活在我在上面所说的那种野蛮残忍的状态中”[121][122]。霍布斯在书中进一步指出自然狀態中的争斗主要是由三种原因导致——第一是竞争,第二是猜疑,第三是荣誉:“第一种原因使人为了求利、第二种原因使人为了求安全、第三种原因则使人为了求名誉而进行侵犯”[123]。霍布斯在书中进一步总结出了若干条自然律,其中第一条为:“每一个人只要有获得和平的希望时,就应当力求和平;在不能得到和平时,他就可以寻求并利用战争的一切有利条件和助力”。在自然状态中,“每一个人对每一种事物都具有权利,甚至对彼此的身体也是这样”,因此,霍布斯的第二条自然律致力于让人们能够享受和平的好处:“在别人也愿意这样做的条件下,当一个人[……]认为必要时,会自愿放弃这种对一切事物的权利;而在对他人的自由权方面满足于相当于自己让他人对自己所具有的自由权利”[124]。这也是社会契约的开始,霍布斯的第三条自然律即为“所定信约必须履行”,在此之上不履行社会契约就是不义的,任何不是不义的事物就是正义的。

阿尔巴尼亚(1997)[编辑]

1997年,阿尔巴尼亚由于金字塔式公司英语Pyramid schemes in Albania倒闭造成的严重的资金损失而陷入了无政府状态[125][126]。由于社会崩溃,全副武装的犯罪分子横行霸道。当时每个城市一般有3-4个黑帮,南部尤甚。当时的警察没有足够的资源来处理与黑帮有关的犯罪。

索马里(1991–2006)[编辑]

2006年时的索马里地图,标有该地区主要政权所控制的领土

1991年,索马里爆发内战,随后索马里的中央政府崩溃。在这种情况下,索马里的居民开始重新采用地方的冲突解决方式,如采用世俗法、传统法或伊斯兰法进行判决,并规定可对所有判决提出上诉。该国原本的法律结构大概由欧陆法系宗教法习惯法索馬里判官政治)三种法系构成[127]

虽然索马里的正规司法系统在穆罕默德·西亞德·巴雷政权倒台后几乎被摧毁殆尽,但后来在不同的地区政府,如自治的邦特兰索马里兰地区政府的努力下在部分地区得以重建。除了地方政府外,索马里过渡国家政府及之后的索马里过渡联邦政府也通过各种国际会议形成了新的临时司法结构。尽管这些政权彼此之间存在着一些重大的政治分歧,但所有这些行政当局有着相似的法律结构,而这些结构大部分是以之前的的索马里政府的司法系统为基础。具体相似之处包括一个以沙里亚法或者其他宗教法优先的特許狀,不过在实践上往往只在结婚、离婚、继承和民事问题等事项使用宗教法。这一特许状还保证了司法機關独立,司法机构受司法委员会保护。此外还有一个包括初审法院、上訴法院最高法院的三级司法系统,巴雷政权军事政变上台前的生效的文职政府的法律在法律被修改之前也仍然有效[128]

经济学家亚历克斯·塔巴罗克英语Alex Tabarrok称索马里在其无国家时期为世界提供了一个“无政府主义理论的独特测试”,同时称其在某些方面接近大衛·佛利民穆瑞·羅斯巴德无政府资本主义者支持的理论[129]。但是无政府主义者和包括瓦特·布拉克在内的一些无政府资本主义者不认为索马里是一个无政府主义社会[130][131]

无政府主义社区[编辑]

俄国内战(1917–1922)[编辑]

内斯托尔·伊万诺维奇·马赫诺俄国内战中领导着乌克兰的无政府主义政权自由地区

1917年,俄国布尔什维克君主主义者之间爆发了内战。随后,在乌克兰境内出现了一支新势力:由内斯托尔·伊万诺维奇·马赫诺领导的无政府主义部队,乌克兰革命起义军。乌克兰的无政府主义者同时组建了自由地区,一个致力于抵抗一切国家权威的无政府主义社会,无论这一权威是来自于一个资本主义国家还是一个共產主義國家[132][133]。这一社会最终被击败白军的布尔什维克政权吞并。无政府主义理论家埃玛·戈尔德曼将马赫诺描述为领导农民革命运动的“一位非凡人物”[134]

1918年间,乌克兰的大部分地区被不受当地人民欢迎的同盟国的部队控制。1918年3月,年轻的无政府主义者马赫诺的部队和他的无政府主义和游击队盟友战胜了德国、奥地利和乌克兰民族主义者(如西蒙·彼得留拉)和俄国白军的部队,缴获了大量德国和奥匈帝国的武器。这些以少胜多的战役奠定了马赫诺军事战术方面的地位,他也因此被其崇拜者称为“马赫诺老爹”(Batko Makhno)[135]

马赫诺视布尔什维克为独裁政权,同时表示反对“契卡……以及其他类似的强制性权威和纪律机构”,呼吁“言论、新闻、集会和工会等自由”[136]。布尔什维克指责马赫诺在他们控制的地区强行建立正式政府,称马赫诺派使用强制征兵,实施草率处决,并拥有两支军事和反情报部队拉兹维德卡(Razvedka)和普罗季夫马赫诺斯基事务委员会(Kommissiya Protivmakhnovskikh Del)(类似契卡格乌[137]。不过后世的史学家将这些说法视为欺诈性的宣传[138]

西班牙(1936)[编辑]

秉持法西斯主义的西班牙将军弗朗西斯科·弗朗哥在1936年发动了一场军事叛乱,试图推翻人民阵线(当时的西班牙执政党),随后西班牙的无政府主义者共产主义者人民阵线的剩余部分联合起来对抗弗朗哥。在整个战争期间和战争结束后不久,许多西班牙工人阶级公民生活在无政府主义社区中,其中许多社区在这一时期蓬勃发展。在德国和意大利的大力支持下,国民军赢得了最终的胜利并建立了由弗朗西斯科·弗朗哥独裁的西班牙政府,有效的终止了西班牙无政府主义的进一步发展[139]

參見[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Benjamin Franks; Nathan Jun; Leonard Williams. Anarchism: A Conceptual Approach. Taylor & Francis. 2018: 104–. ISBN 978-1-317-40681-5. Anarchism can be defined in terms of a rejection of hierarchies, such as capitalism, racism or sexism, a social view of freedom in which access to material resources and liberty of others as prerequisites to personal freedom [...]. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Anarchy. Merriam-webster.com. [22 January 2020]. (原始内容存档于2017-12-25). 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph. Qu'est-ce que la propriété ? ou Recherche sur le principe du Droit et du Gouvernement 1st. Paris: Brocard. 1840: 235 (法语). 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Proudhon, Piere-Joseph. Kelley, Donald R.; Smith, Bonnie G. , 编. Proudhon: What is Property?. Cambridge University Press. 1994: 209. ISBN 978-0-521-40556-0. [S]ociety seeks order in anarchy. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 普魯東, 皮埃爾-約瑟夫. 什么是所有权. 由孙, 署冰翻译 1. 北京: 商务印书馆. 1963-02: 288. ISBN 9787100011754. 社会则在无政府状态中寻求秩序。 
  6. ^ Tamblyn, Nathan (2019-04-30). "The Common Ground of Law and Anarchism". Liverpool Law Review. 40 (1): 65–78. doi:10.1007/s10991-019-09223-1.
  7. ^ Kinna, Ruth (2019-04-24). "Anarchism". Oxford Bibliographies. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/OBO/9780199756384-0059.
  8. ^ McElroy, Wendy. Benjamin Tucker, Liberty, and Individualist Anarchism (PDF). The Independent Review. Winter 1998, II (3): 425. 
  9. ^ 蒲鲁东学说(麦利荪,1941年11月). 中文马克思主义文库. [2021-08-06]. 
  10. ^ Kirkup, Thomas. 俄羅斯大風潮. 由马君武翻译. 少年中國學會. 1902. 
  11. ^ 胡, 庆云. 中国无政府主义思想史 1. 北京: 国防大学出版社. 1994-02: 41–42 [2021-08-04]. ISBN 7-5626-0498-3. 
  12. ^ 徐, 善广; 柳, 剑平. 中国无政府主义史 1. 武汉: 湖北人民出版社. 1989: 23–28. ISBN 7-216-00337-3. 
  13. ^ Gowdy, John M. Limited Wants, Unlimited Means: A Reader on Hunter-Gatherer Economics and the Environment. St Louis: Island Press. 1998: 342. ISBN 1-55963-555-X. 
  14. ^ Dahlberg, Frances. Woman the Gatherer. London: Yale University Press. 1975. ISBN 0-300-02989-6. 
  15. ^ 格雷伯, 大卫. 无政府主义人类学碎片. 由许, 煜翻译 1. 桂林: 广西人民出版社. 2014: 27 [2021-08-06]. ISBN 9787549555277. 这样说他们都真的是无政府社会,建立在明确排除国家和市场的逻辑的基础上。 
  16. ^ Graeber, David. Fragments of an Anarchist Anthropology [无政府主义人类学碎片] (PDF). Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press. 2004. ISBN 0-9728196-4-9. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2008-11-18). 
  17. ^ Erdal, D.; Whiten, A. On human egalitarianism: an evolutionary product of Machiavellian status escalation?. Current Anthropology. 1994, 35 (2): 175–183. S2CID 53652577. doi:10.1086/204255. 
  18. ^ Erdal, D. and A. Whiten 1996. Egalitarianism and Machiavellian intelligence in human evolution. In P. Mellars and K. Gibson (eds), Modelling the early human mind. Cambridge: McDonald Institute Monographs.
  19. ^ Christopher Boehm (2001), Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  20. ^ 格雷伯, 大卫. 无政府主义人类学碎片. 由许, 煜翻译 1. 桂林: 广西人民出版社. 2014: 13 [2021-08-06]. ISBN 9787549555277. 因为我认为这正是人类学特别能帮上忙的地方。 
  21. ^ Graeber, David. Fragments of an anarchist anthropology 2nd pr. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press. 2004. ISBN 978-0972819640. 
  22. ^ 魏明德. 高歇的「宗教退出」說與中國宗教格局重構的哲學思考. 哲學與文化. 2011-10-01, 38 (10) [2021-08-07]. ISSN 1015-8383. doi:10.7065/MRPC.201110.0165. 
  23. ^ Clastres, Pierre. Society Against the State: Essays in Political Anthropology. Robert Hurley; Abe Stein (translators). New York: Zone Books. 1989. ISBN 0-942299-01-9. 
  24. ^ Scott, James. The Art of Not Being Governed. Yale University Press. 2010. ISBN 978-0300169171. 
  25. ^ Scott, James C. 逃避统治的艺术: 东南亚高地的无政府主义历史. 由王晓毅翻译. 北京: 生活·读书·新知三联书店. 2016-01 [2021-08-10]. ISBN 978-7-108-05642-9. 
  26. ^ Leeson, Peter. Pirates, Prisoners, and Preliterates: Anarchic Context and the Private Enforcement of Law (PDF). European Journal of Law and Economics. 2014, 37 (3): 365–379. S2CID 41552010. doi:10.1007/s10657-013-9424-x. 
  27. ^ 人类如何驯化自己?. cnBeta. 新浪科技. [2021-08-06] (中文(中国大陆)). 
  28. ^ Zerzan, John. Running on Emptiness: The Pathology of Civilization. Feral House. 2002. ISBN 0-922915-75-X. 
  29. ^ Shepard, Paul. Traces of an Omnivore. Island Press. 1996. ISBN 1-55963-431-6. 
  30. ^ The Consequences of Domestication and Sedentism by Emily Schultz, et al. Primitivism.com. [2012-01-30]. (原始内容存档于2009-07-15). 
  31. ^ Seven Lies About Civilization, Ran Prieur. Greenanarchy.org. [2012-01-30]. (原始内容存档于2009-10-02). 
  32. ^ Kaczynski, Ted. The Unabomber Trial: The Manifesto [论工业社会及其未来]. The Washington Post. 1995-09-22 [2021-08-06]. 
  33. ^ 潘, 亚玲; 时, 殷弘. 论霍布斯的国际关系哲学. 欧洲. 1999, (06): 17 [2021-08-06]. ISSN 1000-3576. 尽管国家间可以为某些目的达成有限契约,但这完全不等于可对它们实施强制的国际公共权威,也没有改变国际政治中的普遍冲突状态。 
  34. ^ Lechner, Silviya (2017-11). "Anarchy in International Relations". International Studies Association. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–26. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190846626.013.79
  35. ^ Eckstein, Arthur M.; et al. (2020-09-08). "Anarchy". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2020-09-16.
  36. ^ "as many anarchists have stressed, it is not government as such that they find objectionable, but the hierarchical forms of government associated with the nation state". Judith Suissa. Anarchism and Education: a Philosophical Perspective. Routledge. New York. 2006. p. 7
  37. ^ 37.0 37.1 IAF principles. International of Anarchist Federations. (原始内容存档于5 January 2012). The IAF–IFA fights for : the abolition of all forms of authority whether economical, political, social, religious, cultural or sexual. 
  38. ^ "That is why Anarchy, when it works to destroy authority in all its aspects, when it demands the abrogation of laws and the abolition of the mechanism that serves to impose them, when it refuses all hierarchical organisation and preaches free agreement – at the same time strives to maintain and enlarge the precious kernel of social customs without which no human or animal society can exist." Peter Kropotkin. Anarchism: its philosophy and ideal 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2012-03-18.
  39. ^ "anarchists are opposed to irrational (e.g., illegitimate) authority, in other words, hierarchy – hierarchy being the institutionalisation of authority within a society." "B.1 Why are anarchists against authority and hierarchy?" 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2012-06-15. in An Anarchist FAQ
  40. ^ "[Anarchism], a social philosophy that rejects authoritarian government and maintains that voluntary institutions are best suited to express man's natural social tendencies." George Woodcock. "Anarchism" in The Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  41. ^ "In a society developed on these lines, the voluntary associations which already now begin to cover all the fields of human activity would take a still greater extension so as to substitute themselves for the state in all its functions." Peter Kropotkin. "Anarchism" from the Encyclopædia Britannica 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2012-01-06.
  42. ^ Craig, Edward. Anarchism. The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Routledge. : 14. ISBN 978-1-134-34408-6. Anarchism is the view that a society without the state, or government, is both possible and desirable. 
  43. ^ Sheehan, Sean. Anarchism, London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2004. p. 85
  44. ^ Malatesta, Errico. Towards Anarchism. MAN! (Los Angeles: International Group of San Francisco). OCLC 3930443. (原始内容存档于7 November 2012).  Agrell, Siri. Working for The Man. The Globe and Mail. 2007-05-14 [2008-04-14]. (原始内容存档于16 May 2007).  Anarchism. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. 2006 [29 August 2006]. (原始内容存档于14 December 2006).  Anarchism. The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2005: 14. Anarchism is the view that a society without the state, or government, is both possible and desirable.  下列来源认为无政府主义是一种政治哲学:Mclaughlin, Paul. Anarchism and Authority. Aldershot: Ashgate. 2007: 59. ISBN 978-0754661962.  Johnston, R. The Dictionary of Human Geography. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers. 2000: 24. ISBN 0-631-20561-6. 
  45. ^ 45.0 45.1 Slevin, Carl. "Anarchism." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Ed. Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press, 2003.
  46. ^ McLaughlin, Paul (2007). Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism. Ashgate. pp. 28–166. ISBN 9780754661962. "Anarchists do reject the state, as we will see. But to claim that this central aspect of anarchism is definitive is to sell anarchism short. [...] [Opposition to the state] is (contrary to what many scholars believe) not definitive of anarchism."
  47. ^ Jun, Nathan (September 2009). "Anarchist Philosophy and Working Class Struggle: A Brief History and Commentary". WorkingUSA. 12 (3): 505–519. doi:10.1111/j.1743-4580.2009.00251.x. ISSN 1089-7011. "One common misconception, which has been rehearsed repeatedly by the few Anglo-American philosophers who have bothered to broach the topic [...] is that anarchism can be defined solely in terms of opposition to states and governments" (p. 507).
  48. ^ Franks, Benjamin (August 2013). Freeden, Michael; Stears, Marc (eds.). "Anarchism". The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies. Oxford University Press: 385–404. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199585977.013.0001. "[M]any, questionably, regard anti-statism as the irremovable, universal principle at the core of anarchism. [...] The fact that [anarchists and anarcho-capitalists] share a core concept of 'anti-statism', which is often advanced as [...] a commonality between them [...], is insufficient to produce a shared identity [...] because [they interpret] the concept of state-rejection [...] differently despite the initial similarity in nomenclature" (pp. 386–388).
  49. ^ 49.0 49.1 Jennings, Jeremy (1993). "Anarchism". In Eatwell, Roger; Wright, Anthony (eds.). Contemporary Political Ideologies. London: Pinter. pp. 127–146. ISBN 978-0-86187-096-7. "[...] anarchism does not stand for the untrammelled freedom of the individual (as the 'anarcho-capitalists' appear to believe) but, as we have already seen, for the extension of individuality and community" (p. 143).
  50. ^ 50.0 50.1 Gay, Kathlyn; Gay, Martin (1999). Encyclopedia of Political Anarchy. ABC-CLIO. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-87436-982-3. "For many anarchists (of whatever persuasion), anarcho-capitalism is a contradictory term, since 'traditional' anarchists oppose capitalism".
  51. ^ 51.0 51.1 Morriss, Andrew (2008). "Anarcho-capitalism". In Hamowy, Ronald (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. SAGE; Cato Institute. pp. 13–14. doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n8. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. OCLC 191924853. "Social anarchists, those anarchists with communitarian leanings, are critical of anarcho-capitalism because it permits individuals to accumulate substantial power through markets and private property."
  52. ^ 52.0 52.1 Franks, Benjamin (August 2013). Freeden, Michael; Stears, Marc (eds.). "Anarchism". The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies. Oxford University Press: 385–404. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199585977.013.0001. "Individualisms that defend or reinforce hierarchical forms such as the economic-power relations of anarcho-capitalism [...] are incompatible with practices of social anarchism. [...] Increasingly, academic analysis has followed activist currents in rejecting the view that anarcho-capitalism has anything to do with social anarchism" (pp. 393–394).
  53. ^ Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas. Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity. New York: New York University Press. 2003. ISBN 978-0-8147-3155-0. 
  54. ^ Griffin, Roger. From slime mould to rhizome: an introduction to the groupuscular right. Patterns of Prejudice. March 2003, 37 (1): 27–63. S2CID 143709925. doi:10.1080/0031322022000054321. 
  55. ^ Macklin, Graham D. Co-opting the Counter Culture: Troy Southgate and the National Revolutionary Faction. Patterns of Prejudice. September 2005, 39 (3): 301–326. S2CID 144248307. doi:10.1080/00313220500198292. 
  56. ^ Sykes, Alan. The Radical Right in Britain: Social Imperialism to the BNP (British History in Perspective). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 2005. ISBN 978-0-333-59923-5. 
  57. ^ Sunshine, Spencer. Rebranding Fascism: National-Anarchists. The Public Eye. Winter 2008, 23 (4): 1, 12 [12 November 2009]. 
  58. ^ Sanchez, Casey. 'National Anarchism': California racists claim they're Anarchists. Intelligence Report. Summer 2009 [2 December 2009]. 
  59. ^ Lyons, Matthew N. Rising Above the Herd: Keith Preston's Authoritarian Anti-Statism. New Politics. Summer 2011, 7 (3) [27 July 2019]. 
  60. ^ Funnell, Warwick (2007). "Accounting and the Virtues of Anarchy". Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal. 1 (1) 18–27. doi:10.14453/aabfj.v1i1.2.
  61. ^ Robinson, Christine M. (2009). "The Continuing Significance of Class: Confronting Capitalism in an Anarchist Community". Working USA. 12 (3): 355–370. doi:10.1111/j.1743-4580.2009.00243.x.
  62. ^ El-Ojeili, Chamsy (2012). "Anarchism as the Contemporary Spirit of Anti-Capitalism? A Critical Survey of Recent Debates". Critical Sociology. 40 (3): 451–468. doi:10.1177/0896920512452023.
  63. ^ Williams, Dana (2012). "From Top to Bottom, a Thoroughly Stratified World: An Anarchist View of Inequality and Domination". Race, Gender & Class. 19 (3/4): 9–34. JSTOR 43497486.
  64. ^ White, Richard; Williams, Colin (2014). "Anarchist Economic Practices in a 'Capitalist' Society: Some Implications for Organisation and the Future of Work". Ephermera: Theory and Politics in Organization. 14 (4): 947–971. SSRN 2707308.
  65. ^ Casey, Gerard. Freedom's Progress?. Andrews UK Limited. 2018: 670. ISBN 978-1845409425. 
  66. ^ Murray Bookchin (1982). The Ecology of Freedom: The Emergence and Dissolution of Hierarchy. Palo Alto, California: Cheshire Books. p. 3. "My use of the word hierarchy in the subtitle of this work is meant to be provocative. There is a strong theoretical need to contrast hierarchy with the more widespread use of the words class and State; careless use of these terms can produce a dangerous simplification of social reality. To use the words hierarchy, class, and State interchangeably, as many social theorists do, is insidious and obscurantist. This practice, in the name of a "classless" or "libertarian" society, could easily conceal the existence of hierarchical relationships and a hierarchical sensibility, both of which-even in the absence of economic exploitation or political coercion-would serve to perpetuate unfreedom."
  67. ^ Paul McLaughlin (2007). Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism. AshGate. p. 1. "Authority is defined in terms of the right to exercise social control (as explored in the "sociology of power") and the correlative duty to obey (as explored in the "philosophy of practical reason"). Anarchism is distinguished, philosophically, by its scepticism towards such moral relations – by its questioning of the claims made for such normative power – and, practically, by its challenge to those "authoritative" powers which cannot justify their claims and which are therefore deemed illegitimate or without moral foundation."
  68. ^ Emma Goldman. "What it Really Stands for Anarchy" in Anarchism and Other Essays. "Anarchism, then, really stands for the liberation of the human mind from the dominion of religion; the liberation of the human body from the dominion of property; liberation from the shackles and restraint of government. Anarchism stands for a social order based on the free grouping of individuals for the purpose of producing real social wealth; an order that will guarantee to every human being free access to the earth and full enjoyment of the necessities of life, according to individual desires, tastes, and inclinations."
  69. ^ Benjamin Tucker. Individual Liberty. Individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker defined anarchism as opposition to authority, as follows: "They found that they must turn either to the right or to the left, – follow either the path of Authority or the path of Liberty. Marx went one way; Warren and Proudhon the other. Thus were born State Socialism and Anarchism ... Authority, takes many shapes, but, broadly speaking, her enemies divide themselves into three classes: first, those who abhor her both as a means and as an end of progress, opposing her openly, avowedly, sincerely, consistently, universally; second, those who profess to believe in her as a means of progress, but who accept her only so far as they think she will subserve their own selfish interests, denying her and her blessings to the rest of the world; third, those who distrust her as a means of progress, believing in her only as an end to be obtained by first trampling upon, violating, and outraging her. These three phases of opposition to Liberty are met in almost every sphere of thought and human activity. representatives of the first are seen in the Catholic Church and the Russian autocracy; of the second, in the Protestant Church and the Manchester school of politics and political economy; of the third, in the atheism of Gambetta and the socialism of Karl Marx."
  70. ^ Ward, Colin. Anarchism as a Theory of Organization. 1966 [1 March 2010]. (原始内容存档于25 March 2010). 
  71. ^ Anarchist historian George Woodcock report of Mikhail Bakunin's anti-authoritarianism and shows opposition to both state and non-state forms of authority as follows: "All anarchists deny authority; many of them fight against it." (p. 9) ... Bakunin did not convert the League's central committee to his full program, but he did persuade them to accept a remarkably radical recommendation to the Berne Congress of September 1868, demanding economic equality and implicitly attacking authority in both Church and State."
  72. ^ Brown, L. Susan. Anarchism as a Political Philosophy of Existential Individualism: Implications for Feminism. The Politics of Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism and Anarchism. Black Rose Books Ltd. Publishing. 2002: 106. 
  73. ^ Sylvan, Richard. Anarchism. Goodwin, Robert E.; Pettit, Philip (编). A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy. Blackwell Publishing. 1995: 231. 
  74. ^ Ostergaard, Geoffrey. "Anarchism". The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought. Blackwell Publishing. p. 14.
  75. ^ Kropotkin, Peter. Anarchism: A Collection of Revolutionary Writings. Courier Dover Publications. 2002: 5. ISBN 0-486-41955-X. 
  76. ^ R.B. Fowler. The Anarchist Tradition of Political Thought. Western Political Quarterly (University of Utah). 1972, 25 (4): 738–52. JSTOR 446800. doi:10.2307/446800. 
  77. ^ Brooks, Frank H. The Individualist Anarchists: An Anthology of Liberty (1881–1908). Transaction Publishers. 1994: xi. ISBN 1-56000-132-1. 
  78. ^ Joseph Kahn. Anarchism, the Creed That Won't Stay Dead; The Spread of World Capitalism Resurrects a Long-Dormant Movement. The New York Times. 2000, (5 August). 
  79. ^ Colin Moynihan. Book Fair Unites Anarchists. In Spirit, Anyway. New York Times. 2007, (16 April). 
  80. ^ Osgood, Herbert L. (March 1889). "Scientific Anarchism". Political Science Quarterly. The Academy of Political Science. 4 (1): 1–36. doi:10.2307/2139424. JSTOR 2139424. "In anarchism we have the extreme antithesis of [state] socialism and [authoritarian] communism" (p. 1).
  81. ^ Guérin, Daniel (1970). Anarchism: From Theory to Practice. Monthly Review Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780853451280. "[A]narchism is really a synonym for socialism. The anarchist is primarily a socialist whose aim is to abolish the exploitation of man by man. Anarchism is only one of the streams of socialist thought, that stream whose main components are concern for liberty and haste to abolish the State."55-6. "In general anarchism is closer to socialism than liberalism. [...] Anarchism finds itself largely in the socialist camp, but it also has outriders in liberalism. It cannot be reduced to socialism, and is best seen as a separate and distinctive doctrine."
  82. ^ Jennings, Jeremy (1999). "Anarchism". In Eatwell, Roger; Wright, Anthony (eds.). Contemporary Political Ideologies (reprinted, 2nd ed.). London: A & C Black. ISBN 9780826451736. p. 147.
  83. ^ Walter, Nicholas (2002). About Anarchism. London: Freedom Press. p. 44. ISBN 9780900384905. "[A]narchism does derive from liberalism and socialism both historically and ideologically. [...] In a sense, anarchists always remain liberals and socialists, and whenever they reject what is good in either they betray anarchism itself. [...] We are liberals but more so, and socialists but more so."
  84. ^ Newman, Michael (2005). Socialism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 15. ISBN 9780192804310.
  85. ^ Morriss, Brian (2015). Anthropology, Ecology, and Anarchism: A Brian Morris Reader. Marshall, Peter (illustrated ed.). Oakland: PM Press. p. 64. ISBN 9781604860931. "The tendency of writers like David Pepper (1996) to create a dichotomy between socialism and anarchism is both conceptually and historically misleading."
  86. ^ Guérin, Daniel (1970). Anarchism: From Theory to Practice. Monthly Review Press. p. 70. ISBN 9780853451280. "The anarchists were unanimous in subjecting authoritarian socialism to a barrage of severe criticism. At the time when they made violent and satirical attacks there were not entirely well founded, for those to whom they were addressed were either primitive or 'vulgar' communists, whose thought had not yet been fertilized by Marxist humanism, or else, in the case of Marx and Engels themselves, were not as set on authority and state control as the anarchists made out."
  87. ^ Post-left anarcho-communist Bob Black after analysing insurrectionary anarcho-communist Luigi Galleani's view on anarcho-communism went as far as saying that "communism is the final fulfillment of individualism.... The apparent contradiction between individualism and communism rests on a misunderstanding of both.... Subjectivity is also objective: the individual really is subjective. It is nonsense to speak of 'emphatically prioritizing the social over the individual'.... You may as well speak of prioritizing the chicken over the egg. Anarchy is a 'method of individualization'. It aims to combine the greatest individual development with the greatest communal unity."Bob Black. Nightmares of Reason.
  88. ^ Max Baginski. "Stirner: The Ego and His Own". Mother Earth. Vol. 2. No. 3 May 1907. "Modern Communists are more individualistic than Stirner. To them, not merely religion, morality, family and State are spooks, but property also is no more than a spook, in whose name the individual is enslaved – and how enslaved!...Communism thus creates a basis for the liberty and Eigenheit of the individual. I am a Communist because I am an Individualist. Fully as heartily the Communists concur with Stirner when he puts the word take in place of demand – that leads to the dissolution of property, to expropriation. Individualism and Communism go hand in hand."
  89. ^ "This stance puts him squarely in the libertarian socialist tradition and, unsurprisingly, (Benjamin) Tucker referred to himself many times as a socialist and considered his philosophy to be "Anarchistic socialism." "An Anarchist FAQby Various Authors
  90. ^ "Because revolution is the fire of our will and a need of our solitary minds; it is an obligation of the libertarian aristocracy. To create new ethical values. To create new aesthetic values. To communalize material wealth. To individualize spiritual wealth." [1]Renzo Novatore. Toward the Creative Nothing
  91. ^ Suissa, Judith (2001). "Anarchism, Utopias and Philosophy of Education". Journal of Philosophy of Education. 35 (4): 627–646. doi:10.1111/1467-9752.00249
  92. ^ Skirda, Alexandre. Facing the Enemy: A History of Anarchist Organization from Proudhon to May 1968. AK Press, 2002, p. 191.
  93. ^ McKay, Iain (编). An Anarchist FAQ I/II. Stirling: AK Press. 2012. ISBN 9781849351225. No, far from it. Most anarchists in the late nineteenth century recognised communist-anarchism as a genuine form of anarchism and it quickly replaced collectivist anarchism as the dominant tendency. So few anarchists found the individualist solution to the social question or the attempts of some of them to excommunicate social anarchism from the movement convincing. 
  94. ^ Catalan historian Xavier Diez reports that the Spanish individualist anarchist press was widely read by members of anarcho-communist groups and by members of the anarcho-syndicalist trade union CNT. There were also the cases of prominent individualist anarchists such as Federico Urales and Miguel Giménez Igualada who were members of the CNT and J. Elizalde who was a founding member and first secretary of the Iberian Anarchist Federation. Xavier Diez. El anarquismo individualista en España: 1923–1938. ISBN 978-84-96044-87-6
  95. ^ Within the synthesist anarchist organization, the Fédération Anarchiste, there existed an individualist anarchist tendency alongside anarcho-communist and anarchosyndicalist currents. Individualist anarchists participating inside the Fédération Anarchiste included Charles-Auguste Bontemps, Georges Vincey and André Arru. "Pensée et action des anarchistes en France : 1950–1970" by Cédric GUÉRIN
  96. ^ In Italy in 1945, during the Founding Congress of the Italian Anarchist Federation, there was a group of individualist anarchists led by Cesare Zaccaria who was an important anarchist of the time.Cesare Zaccaria (19 August 1897 – October 1961) by Pier Carlo Masini and Paul Sharkey
  97. ^ "Resiting the Nation State, the pacifist and anarchist tradition" by Geoffrey Ostergaard. Ppu.org.uk. 1945-08-06 [2010-09-20]. (原始内容存档于2011-05-14). 
  98. ^ George Woodcock. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements (1962)
  99. ^ Fowler, R.B. "The Anarchist Tradition of Political Thought." The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 4. (December 1972), pp. 743–44.
  100. ^ Nettlau, Max. A Short History of Anarchism. Freedom Press. 1996: 162. ISBN 0-900384-89-1. 
  101. ^ Daniel Guérin. Anarchism: From Theory to Practice. "At the end of the century in France, Sebastien Faure took up a word originated in 1858 by one Joseph Déjacque to make it the title of a journal, Le Libertaire. Today the terms 'anarchist' and 'libertarian' have become interchangeable."
  102. ^ 102.0 102.1 Marshall, Peter (1992). Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. London: HarperCollins. pp. 564–565. ISBN 978-0-00-217855-6. "Anarcho-capitalists are against the State simply because they are capitalists first and foremost. [...] They are not concerned with the social consequences of capitalism for the weak, powerless and ignorant. [...] As such, anarcho-capitalism overlooks the egalitarian implications of traditional individualist anarchists like Spooner and Tucker. In fact, few anarchists would accept the 'anarcho-capitalists' into the anarchist camp since they do not share a concern for economic equality and social justice. Their self-interested, calculating market men would be incapable of practising voluntary co-operation and mutual aid. Anarcho-capitalists, even if they do reject the state, might therefore best be called right-wing libertarians rather than anarchists."
  103. ^ 103.0 103.1 Goodway, David (2006). Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow: Left-Libertarian Thought and British Writers from William Morris to Colin Ward. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. p. 4. "'Libertarian' and 'libertarianism' are frequently employed by anarchists as synonyms for 'anarchist' and 'anarchism', largely as an attempt to distance themselves from the negative connotations of 'anarchy' and its derivatives. The situation has been vastly complicated in recent decades with the rise of anarcho-capitalism, 'minimal statism' and an extreme right-wing laissez-faire philosophy advocated by such theorists as Rothbard and Nozick and their adoption of the words 'libertarian' and 'libertarianism'. It has therefore now become necessary to distinguish between their right libertarianism and the left libertarianism of the anarchist tradition."
  104. ^ Newman, Saul (2010). The Politics of Postanarchism. Edinburgh University Press. p. 43. "It is important to distinguish between anarchism and certain strands of right-wing libertarianism which at times go by the same name (for example, Rothbard's anarcho-capitalism)." ISBN 0748634959.
  105. ^ 105.0 105.1 105.2 Carlson, Jennifer D. (2012). "Libertarianism". In Miller, Wilburn R., ed. The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America. London: SAGE Publications. p. 1006. ISBN 1412988764.
  106. ^ Perlin, Terry M. Contemporary Anarchism. Transaction Publishers. 1979: 40. ISBN 0-87855-097-6. 
  107. ^ Noam Chomsky; Carlos Peregrín Otero. Language and Politics. AK Press. 2004: 739. ISBN 9781902593821. 
  108. ^ Marshall, Peter (1992). Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. London: HarperCollins. p. 641. " "For a long time, libertarian was interchangeable in France with anarchist but in recent years, its meaning has become more ambivalent. [...] In general, anarchism is closer to socialism than liberalism. [...] Anarchism finds itself largely in the socialist camp, but it also has outriders in liberalism. It cannot be reduced to socialism, and is best seen as a separate and distinctive doctrine."
  109. ^ Bufe, Charles. The Heretic's Handbook of Quotations. See Sharp Press, 1992. p. iv.
  110. ^ Fernandez, Frank. Cuban Anarchism. The History of a Movement. See Sharp Press, 2001, p. 9.
  111. ^ Skirda, Alexandre. Facing the Enemy: A History of Anarchist Organization from Proudhon to May 1968. AK Press 2002. p. 183.
  112. ^ MacDonald, Dwight & Wreszin, Michael. Interviews with Dwight Macdonald. University Press of Mississippi, 2003. p. 82.
  113. ^ Woodcock, George. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements. Broadview Press, 2004. Uses the terms interchangeably such as on p. 10.
  114. ^ Ward, Colin. Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press 2004 p. 62.
  115. ^ Chomsky, Noam (2005). Pateman, Barry (ed.). Chomsky on Anarchism. AK Press. p. 123. "[Anarchism is] the libertarian wing of socialism."
  116. ^ Goodway, David. Anarchists Seed Beneath the Snow. Liverpool Press. 2006, p. 4.
  117. ^ Gay, Kathlyn. Encyclopedia of Political Anarchy. ABC-CLIO / University of Michigan, 2006, p. 126.
  118. ^ Cohn, Jesse (20 April 2009). "Anarchism". In Ness, Immanuel (ed.). The International Encyclopedia of Revolution and Protest. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 4–6. "[F]rom the 1890s on, the term 'libertarian socialism' has entered common use as a synonym for anarchism. [...] 'libertarianism' [...] a term that, until the mid-twentieth century, was synonymous with 'anarchism' per se."
  119. ^ Levy, Carl; Adams, Matthew S., eds. (2018). The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 104. "As such, many people use the term 'anarchism' to describe the anti-authoritarian wing of the socialist movement."
  120. ^ The Putney Debates, The Forum at the Online Library of Liberty.  Source: Sir William Clarke, Puritanism and Liberty, being the Army Debates (1647–9) from the Clarke Manuscripts with Supplementary Documents, selected and edited with an Introduction A.S.P. Woodhouse, foreword by A.D. Lindsay (University of Chicago Press, 1951).
  121. ^ 霍布斯, 托马斯. 利维坦. 由黎思复; 黎廷弼翻译 1. 北京: 商务印书馆. : 95 [2021-08-10]. ISBN 978-7-100-01751-0. 
  122. ^ Chapter XIII. Oregonstate.edu. [2012-01-30]. (原始内容存档于2010-05-28). 
  123. ^ 霍布斯, 托马斯. 利维坦. 由黎思复; 黎廷弼翻译 1. 北京: 商务印书馆. : 94 [2021-08-10]. ISBN 978-7-100-01751-0. 
  124. ^ 霍布斯, 托马斯. 利维坦. 由黎思复; 黎廷弼翻译 1. 北京: 商务印书馆. : 98 [2021-08-10]. ISBN 978-7-100-01751-0. 
  125. ^ Pike, John. Albanian Civil War (1997). Global Security. These riots, and the state of anarchy which they caused, are known as the Albanian civil war of 1997 
  126. ^ D. Rai*c. Statehood and the Law of Self-Determination. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 25 September 2002: 69. ISBN 90-411-1890-X. An example of a situation which features aspects of anarchy rather than civil war is the case of Albania after the outbreak of chaos in 1997. 
  127. ^ Central Intelligence Agency. Somalia. The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. 2011 [5 October 2011]. 
  128. ^ Le Sage, Andre. Stateless Justice in Somalia (PDF). Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue. 1 June 2005 [26 June 2009]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于18 January 2012). 
  129. ^ Tabarrok, Alex. Somalia and the theory of anarchy. Marginal Revolution. 21 April 2004 [13 January 2008]. 
  130. ^ Knight, Alex R., III. The Truth About Somalia And Anarchy. Center for a Stateless Society. 7 October 2009 [24 December 2016]. 
  131. ^ Block, Walter. Review Essay (PDF). The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics. Fall 1999, 2 (3) [28 January 2010]. But if we define anarchy as places without governments, and we define governments as the agencies with a legal right to impose violence on their subjects, then whatever else occurred in Haiti, Sudan, and Somalia, it wasn't anarchy. For there were well-organized gangs (e.g., governments) in each of these places, demanding tribute, and fighting others who made similar impositions. Absence of government means absence of government, whether well established ones, or fly-by-nights. 
  132. ^ Yekelchyk 2007, p 80.
  133. ^ Charles Townshend; John Bourne; Jeremy Black. The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War. Oxford University Press. 1997. ISBN 0-19-820427-2. 
  134. ^ Emma Goldman. My Disillusionment in Russia. Courier Dover Publications. 2003: 61. ISBN 0-486-43270-X. 
  135. ^ Edward R. Kantowicz. The Rage of Nations. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. 1999: 173. ISBN 0-8028-4455-3. 
  136. ^ Declaration Of The Revolutionary Insurgent Army Of The Ukraine (Makhnovist). Peter Arshinov, History of the Makhnovist Movement (1918–1921), 1923. Black & Red, 1974
  137. ^ Footman, David. Civil War In Russia Frederick A.Praeger 1961, p287
  138. ^ Guerin, Daniel. Anarchism: Theory and Practice
  139. ^ Dolgoff, Sam. The Anarchist Collectives: Workers' Self-management in the Spanish Revolution, 1936-1939. Black Rose Books Ltd. 1974. ISBN 9780919618206 (英语). 

外部链接[编辑]