焦爾達諾·布魯諾

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焦爾達諾·布魯諾
(Giordano Bruno)
Giordano Bruno.jpg
出生 1548年 (日期不詳)
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg那不勒斯王國諾拉
逝世 1600年2月17日1600-02-17
教皇國羅馬
死于火刑
研究領域 數學天文學教會法
影响于 戈特弗里德·莱布尼茨
阿图尔·叔本华

焦爾達諾·布鲁诺(意大利语:Giordano Bruno,1548年-1600年2月17日)是文藝復興時期的意大利哲学家數學家天文學家和宗教人物,1593年起,布鲁诺以异端罪名接受罗马宗教法庭审问,指控包括否认数项天主教核心信条(如否认地狱永罚、三位一体、基督神性、马利亚童贞性、圣餐化质变体论等)。布鲁诺的泛神论思想也属严重关切之点[1]。宗教法庭判其有罪,他于1600年在罗马鲜花广场被处以火刑。

布鲁诺死后获得了可观声誉,尤其被19世纪至20世纪早期的评论者们当作科学烈士加以纪念[2],尽管历史学家们对此点已有争论,即对布鲁诺的异端审讯究竟在多大程度上是一种对于他天文观点的回应,还是对他哲学、神学等其他思想的回应[3][4][5][6][7]。他因坚定支持日心说而为普通大众所熟悉,但日心说是否是他招惹天主教迫害的主要原因存在争议[8]。布鲁诺的案例仍被认为是一个有关自由思想与新兴科学历史的标志性事件。[9][10][11]

生平[编辑]

1548年,布鲁诺出生於那不勒斯王國諾拉,父親是軍人喬凡尼·布魯諾(Giovanni Bruno)。9歲的時候(一说11歲),他前往那不勒斯城學習人文科學、邏輯和辯論術。布鲁诺在17歲時進入修道院隱修(一说15歲),得教名喬爾達諾。布鲁诺學習亞里士多德學派哲學托马斯·阿奎那神學。24岁时获任命為神父

1576年,布鲁诺為逃避學術上的指控而展開流浪生涯,到過日內瓦普魯士巴黎倫敦等地。他在倫敦逗留了兩年(1583年至1585年),著有《Ash Wednesday Supper》、《On the Infinite Universe and Worlds》、對話錄《On the Cause, Principle, and Unity》和《The Heroic Furori》。在《On the Infinite Universe and Worlds》這本書當中,提出宇宙無限的思想,認為宇宙是統一的、物質的、無限的和永恆的,在太陽系以後還有無以數計的天體世界。 

1583年,布魯諾到英國,批判經院哲學和神學,反對亞里士多德、托勒密地心說,宣傳哥白尼日心說。1585年去德國,宣傳進步的宇宙觀,反對宗教哲學,進一步引起羅馬宗教裁判所的恐懼和仇恨。1585年布魯諾重返巴黎,並到歐洲各地出版著作。他又應威尼斯貴族Giovanni Mocenigo之邀,返回意大利當其私人教師。1592年,他因招致Mocenigo的不满,遭到告發进而被天主教宗教法庭控以「異端邪說」罪,在威尼斯被捕入獄。在被囚禁的八年中,布魯諾始終堅持自己的思想,最後被宗教裁判所判為“異端”於1600年2月17日在羅馬鮮花廣場被燒死[12]

对布鲁诺的评价[编辑]

神学异端[编辑]

黑格尔在他《哲学历史》讲稿中写道:“布鲁诺的一生,代表着对天主教信仰稳固纯粹之权威的明显对抗。[13]

Alfonso Ingegno指出,布鲁诺的哲学“挑战了宗教改革的发展,令人质疑整个基督教的真正价值,并声称基督对人类犯下一个欺骗......布鲁诺认为,我们现在可以承认普遍的法则,控制着无限宇宙中万物永恒不断的生发。”[14]

A.M. 帕特森说,虽然我们不再有教皇官方谴责布鲁诺的副本,他的异端邪说包括“无限宇宙和多重世界的学说”以及他信仰“地球的运动”。[15]

迈克尔·怀特指出,宗教法庭可能在布鲁诺早年就已对他进行追究,因他反对亚里士多德,对亚流派异端兴致勃勃,阅读伊拉斯谟的著作,拥有违禁手抄本。[16]

怀特认为,布鲁诺后来的异端罪是“多重性的”,并以他多重世界的概念去支持。 “这也许是他所有观点中最危险的一个,如果其他世界存在智慧生物,他们是否也会有他们的‘马利亚探亲’?这种想法是相当不可思议的。”[17]

弗朗西斯·耶茨反对那种观点,她称其为“传说布鲁诺作为哲学思想者被控告,因他‘多重世界’或‘地球运动’的大胆观点被烧。”而她写道:“教会是……完全履行其分内之事,如果对布鲁诺异端邪说的定罪中包含有哲学论点”,因为“其哲学论点与其异端邪说是如影随形的。”[18]

《斯坦福哲学百科全书》,“在1600年,天主教会对于哥白尼体系并没有官方的立场,日心说当然不属于异端。当[...]布鲁诺[...]被视为邪教徒而烧于火刑柱时,也与他支持哥白尼宇宙学的著作无关。”[19] 与之类似,《天主教百科全书(1908年版)》称:“布鲁诺被定罪,既不是因为他对哥白尼天文体系的辩护,也不是因为他‘有人定居之多重世界’的大胆言论,而是因为他在神学上的错误,其中包括:基督不是神,只不过是位少见的高超魔术师,圣灵是这个世界的灵魂,魔鬼将得到拯救等等。”[20]

梵蒂冈机密档案馆的网站,讨论在罗马对布鲁诺法律控告的总结时,指出:“就在布鲁诺被审问的同一类房间里,基于科学信仰间关系这种同样重要的原因,在新天文学曙光与亚里士多德哲学的衰落中,16年后,红衣主教罗伯·白敏,就是后来质疑布鲁诺所作异端论题的,召见了伽利略·伽利雷——伽利略也遇到了一桩著名的宗教法庭审判,幸运的是,这审判只终结于一份简短的弃绝声明。”[21]

纪念[编辑]

位於意大利鮮花廣場的焦爾達諾·布魯諾雕像。

19世紀末,布魯諾的彫像矗立於當年殉難的地方。是共济会修建的[22]

进入近代以来后,意大利和希腊的科技一直落后于西欧。布鲁诺葬生的鲜花广场也有很多书摊。一位名叫恩里科·费米的小孩曾在这里度过青少年时光,并在这里买到了人生第一本物理学读物。恩里克·费米在获得诺贝尔奖后就离开了基础科学落后的意大利,远赴美国生活,并成为20世纪中期世界原子物理学的领袖之一。[23]

著作[编辑]

布魯諾的主要著作有《論無限宇宙和世界》,書中支持哥白尼的日心說,並明確指出:“宇宙是無限大的”,“宇宙不僅是無限的,而且是物質的”。還著有《諾亞方舟》,抨擊死抱《聖經》的學者。

參閱[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Birx, Jams H.. "Giordano Bruno". The Harbinger, Mobile, AL, 11 November 1997. "Bruno was burned to death at the stake for his pantheistic stance and cosmic perspective."
  2. ^ Arturo Labriola, Giordano Bruno: Martyrs of free thought no. 1
  3. ^ Frances Yates, Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1964, p. 450
  4. ^ Michael J. Crowe, The Extraterrestrial Life Debate 1750–1900, Cambridge University Press, 1986, p. 10, "[Bruno's] sources... seem to have been more numerous than his followers, at least until the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century revival of interest in Bruno as a supposed 'martyr for science.' It is true that he was burned at the stake in Rome in 1600, but the church authorities guilty of this action were almost certainly more distressed at his denial of Christ's divinity and alleged diabolism than at his cosmological doctrines."
  5. ^ Adam Frank, The Constant Fire: Beyond the Science vs. Religion Debate, University of California Press, 2009, p. 24, "Though Bruno may have been a brilliant thinker whose work stands as a bridge between ancient and modern thought, his persecution cannot be seen solely in light of the war between science and religion."
  6. ^ White, Michael. The Pope and the Heretic: The True Story of Giordano Bruno, the Man who Dared to Defy the Roman Inquisition, p. 7. Perennial, New York, 2002. "This was perhaps the most dangerous notion of all... If other worlds existed with intelligent beings living there, did they too have their visitations? The idea was quite unthinkable."
  7. ^ Shackelford, Joel (2009). "Myth 7 That Giordano Bruno was the first martyr of modern science". In Numbers, Ronald L. Galileo goes to jail and other myths about science and religion. Cambridge, Mass: Havard University Press. p. 66. "Yet the fact remains that cosmological matters, notably the plurality of worlds, were an identifiable concern all along and appear in the summary document: Bruno was repeatedly questioned on these matters, and he apparently refused to recant them at the end.14 So, Bruno probably was burned alive for resolutely maintaining a series of heresies, among which his teaching of the plurality of worlds was prominent but by no means singular."
  8. ^ 布鲁诺再认识
  9. ^ Gatti, Hilary (2002). Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science: Broken Lives and Organizational Power. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. pp. 18–19. Retrieved 21 March 2014. For Bruno was claiming for the philosopher a principle of free thought and inquiry which implied an entirely new concept of authority: that of the individual intellect in its serious and continuing pursuit of an autonomous inquiry… It is impossible to understand the issue involved and to evaluate justly the stand made by Bruno with his life without appreciating the question of free thought and liberty of expression. His insistence on placing this issue at the center of both his work and of his defense is why Bruno remains so much a figure of the modern world. If there is, as many have argued, an intrinsic link between science and liberty of inquiry, then Bruno was among those who guaranteed the future of the newly emerging sciences, as well as claiming in wider terms a general principle of free thought and expression.
  10. ^ Montano, Aniello (24 November 2007). Antonio Gargano, ed. Le deposizioni davanti al tribunale dell'Inquisizione. Napoli: La Città del Sole. p. 71. In Rome, Bruno was imprisoned for seven years and subjected to a difficult trial that analyzed, minutely, all his philosophical ideas. Bruno, who in Venice had been willing to recant some theses, become increasingly resolute and declared on 21 December 1599 that he 'did not wish to repent of having too little to repent, and in fact did not know what to repent.' Declared an unrepentant heretic and excommunicated, he was burned alive in the Campo dei Fiori in Rome on 17 February 1600. On the stake, along with Bruno, burned the hopes of many, including philosophers and scientists of good faith like Galileo, who thought they could reconcile religious faith and scientific research, while belonging to an ecclesiastical organization declaring itself to be the custodian of absolute truth and maintaining a cultural militancy requiring continual commitment and suspicion.
  11. ^ Birx, James (11 November 1997). "Giordano Bruno". Mobile Alabama Harbinger. Retrieved 28 April 2014. To me, Bruno is the supreme martyr for both free thought and critical inquiry… Bruno's critical writings, which pointed out the hypocrisy and bigotry within the Church, along with his tempestuous personality and undisciplined behavior, easily made him a victim of the religious and philosophical intolerance of the 16th century. Bruno was excommunicated by the Catholic, Lutheran and Calvinist Churches for his heretical beliefs. The Catholic hierarchy found him guilty of infidelity and many errors, as well as serious crimes of heresy… Bruno was burned to death at the stake for his pantheistic stance and cosmic perspective.
  12. ^ 布鲁诺再认识
  13. ^ Hegel's lectures on the history of philosophy, translated by E.S. Haldane and F.H. Simson, in three volumes. Volume III, p. 119. The Humanities Press, 1974, New York.
  14. ^ Cause, Principle and Unity, by Giordano Bruno. Edited by R.J. Blackwell and Robert de Lucca, with an Introduction by Alfonso Ingegno. p.x. Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  15. ^ Paterson, p. 198.
  16. ^ White, Michael. The Pope and the Heretic: The True Story of Giordano Bruno, the Man who Dared to Defy the Roman Inquisition, p. 7. Perennial, New York, 2002.
  17. ^ White, Michael. The Pope and the Heretic: The True Story of Giordano Bruno, the Man who Dared to Defy the Roman Inquisition, p. 7. Perennial, New York, 2002.
  18. ^ Yates, Frances, Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition, pp. 354–356. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1964.
  19. ^ Sheila Rabin, "Nicolaus Copernicus" in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (online, accessed 19 November 2005).
  20. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Giordano Bruno". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  21. ^ "Summary of the trial against Giordano Bruno: Rome, 1597". Vatican Secret Archives. Archived from the original on 9 June 2010. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
  22. ^ Eugen Lennhoff, Oskar Posner, Dieter A. Binder: Internationales Freimaurer-Lexikon. 5. überarbeitete Auflage. Herbig Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7766-2478-6
  23. ^ 埃米里奥·赛格雷. 原子舞者:费米传. 世纪人文系列丛书. 杨建邺,杨渭 译. 上海世纪出版集团. 2006年4月1日: 第9頁. ISBN 9787532383917. 

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