# 物理学

## 歷史

「物理」一詞在英文裏是「physics」，最先出自於古希臘文φύσις」，原意是「自然」。在中文裏，這詞最早可在戰國時期佚書《鹖冠子·王鈇篇》找到，「願聞其人情物理所以嗇萬物與天地總與神明體正之道。」在這裏，「物理」指的是一切事物之道理。[6]三國時期，楊泉著有《物理論》，是最早的書名含有「物理」一詞的著作。[7]明末清初科學家方以智受到西學影響，撰寫了百科全書式著作《物理小識》，在這裏，「物理」的含義已演化為學術之理，包括自然科學的各門領域與人文學的部分領域。[8][9]

### 古希臘物理學

1824年，在倫敦發行的《機械雜誌》內的一副刻畫。阿基米德說：「給我一個支點，我就可以撬起整個地球。」[11]:65-66

## 近期研究

• 研究宇宙的初始與命運：嘗試解釋大爆炸宇宙微波背景宇宙暴脹宇宙加速膨脹暗物質暗能量等等難題。
• 研究宇宙的演化機制：宇宙怎樣從大爆炸演化至當今的浩瀚星空？初始的恆星、星系與黑洞是怎樣形成的？它門怎樣影響後來天文星體的形成？各種天文星體是怎樣形成的？
• 研究鄰近的系外行星：它們是否適合居住、是否已孕育生命？怎樣才能觀察到更多關於它們的信息？

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