特拉托阿尼

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阿兹特克帝国特拉托阿尼
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标志
详情
尊稱 大特拉托阿尼(古典纳瓦特尔语:Huēyi tlahtoāni,意为“伟大的君主”)
开国君主 阿卡马皮奇特利
末代君主 库瓦赫特莫克
建立 约1376年
终结 1521年

特拉托阿尼古典纳瓦特尔语tlahtoāni pronounced [t͡ɬaʔtoˈaːni] 聆聽,意为“发言者、统治者”)为前哥伦布时期时,对阿兹特克帝国城邦统治者的纳瓦特尔语称谓,在其他语言中可将其译作君主[1]女性则用西瓦特拉托阿尼Cihuātlahtoāni,意为“女王”)称呼之[2]。此外,库瓦赫特拉托阿尼(英語:Cuauhtlatoani,“明智的首领”)指在阿兹特克帝国尚未建立时便已定居在此的墨西加人首领,或殖民时期阿兹特克帝国统治者。部分情况下,特拉托阿尼专指帝国首都特诺奇蒂特兰的统治者。

特拉托阿尼的领土被称为特拉托卡特拉利(古典纳瓦特尔语:Tlahtohcātlālli)[3] ,其住所被称为特拉托卡卡利(古典纳瓦特尔语:Tlahtohcācalli)。[3]

阿兹特克帝国的每一座城邦都有自己的统治者,兼握其城邦的政教大权,并被视为城邦的最高指挥官。特拉托阿尼通常由皇室子弟世袭登上王位,但也存在通过选举当上统治者的个例。[4]选举者为一个类似议会的团体,通常由长者、贵族与祭司组成。

阿兹特克帝国历代特拉托阿尼[编辑]

末任特拉托阿尼库瓦赫特莫克

阿兹特克帝国共有11位特拉托阿尼(此处专指特诺奇蒂特兰之统治者)。

相关条目[编辑]

引注[编辑]

  1. ^ Lockhart (2001, p.238); Schroeder (2007, p.3). See also the entry for "TLAHTOANI" 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2007-06-14., in Wimmer (2006)
  2. ^ Schroeder (2007, pp.3–4). See also the entry for "CIHUATLAHTOANI" 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2007-06-08. in Wimmer (2006).
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Nahuatl dictionary (1997). Wired humanities project. Retrieved January 1, 2012, from link
  4. ^ pre-Columbian civilizations. Encyclopedia Britannica. [2017-05-22] (英语). 

参考文献[编辑]

  • Berdan, Frances F.; Richard E. Blanton; Elizabeth Hill Boone; Mary G. Hodge; Michael E. Smith; Emily Umberger. Aztec Imperial Strategies. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. 1996. ISBN 0-88402-211-0. OCLC 27035231. 
  • Gibson, Charles. The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule: A History of the Indians of the Valley of Mexico, 1519–1810 Reprinted 1976. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1964. ISBN 0-8047-0196-2. OCLC 190295. 
  • Lockhart, James. Nahuatl as Written: Lessons in Older Written Nahuatl, with Copious Examples and Texts. UCLA Latin American studies, vol. 88; Nahuatl studies series, no. 6. Stanford and Los Angeles: Stanford University Press and UCLA Latin American Center Publications. 2001. ISBN 0-8047-4282-0. OCLC 46858459.  (英文) (纳瓦特尔文)
  • Schroeder, Susan. Chimalpahin and the Kingdoms of Chalco. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. 1991. ISBN 0-8165-1182-9. OCLC 21976206. 
  • Schroeder, Susan. The Annals of Chimalpahin (PDF). (编) James Lockhart; Lisa Sousa; Stephanie Wood. Sources and Methods for the Study of Postconquest Mesoamerican Ethnohistory (PDF e-book online publication) Provisional version. Eugene: University of Oregon Wired Humanities Project. 2007 [2008-05-16]. 
  • Wimmer, Alexis. Dictionnaire de la langue nahuatl classique (online version, incorporating reproductions from Dictionnaire de la langue nahuatl ou mexicaine [1885], by Rémi Siméon英语Rémi Siméon). 2006.  (法文) (纳瓦特尔文)
  • Barbara A. Somervill. Great Empires of the Past: Empire of the Aztecs. New York: Chelsa House, 2010.
  • Carrasco, David. Daily Life of The Aztecs: People of the Sun and Earth. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1998.
  • Carrasco, D. 1998, 139.
  • Sahagun, Bernardino de. Florentine Codex: General History of the Things of New Spain. Translated and edited by Arthur J. O. Anderson and Charles E. Dibble. 13 vols. Santa Fe: School of American Research, and University of Utah, 1950-1982.
  • Sahagun, Florentine Codex, VIII: 52.
  • Somervill, B. 2010, 78.