# 态函数

（重定向自状态函数

S J/(mol·K)

H J

## 热力学势

 内能 ${\displaystyle U}$ 有时也用E表示 亥姆霍兹自由能 ${\displaystyle A=U-TS}$ 也常用F表示 焓 ${\displaystyle H=U+PV}$ 吉布斯能 ${\displaystyle G=U+PV-TS}$

T =温度
S =
P =压强
V =体积

${\displaystyle dU=T\,dS-\sum _{i}X_{i}\,dx_{i}+\sum _{j}\mu _{j}\,dN_{j}\,}$

 ${\displaystyle \mathrm {d} U\,}$ ${\displaystyle \!\!=\!\!}$ ${\displaystyle T\mathrm {d} S\,}$ ${\displaystyle -\,}$ ${\displaystyle p\mathrm {d} V\,}$ ${\displaystyle +\sum _{i}\mu _{i}\,\mathrm {d} N_{i}\,}$ ${\displaystyle \mathrm {d} F\,}$ ${\displaystyle \!\!=\!\!}$ ${\displaystyle -\,}$ ${\displaystyle S\,\mathrm {d} T\,}$ ${\displaystyle -\,}$ ${\displaystyle p\mathrm {d} V\,}$ ${\displaystyle +\sum _{i}\mu _{i}\,\mathrm {d} N_{i}\,}$ ${\displaystyle \mathrm {d} H\,}$ ${\displaystyle \!\!=\!\!}$ ${\displaystyle T\,\mathrm {d} S\,}$ ${\displaystyle +\,}$ ${\displaystyle V\mathrm {d} p\,}$ ${\displaystyle +\sum _{i}\mu _{i}\,\mathrm {d} N_{i}\,}$ ${\displaystyle \mathrm {d} G\,}$ ${\displaystyle \!\!=\!\!}$ ${\displaystyle -\,}$ ${\displaystyle S\,\mathrm {d} T\,}$ ${\displaystyle +\,}$ ${\displaystyle V\mathrm {d} p\,}$ ${\displaystyle +\sum _{i}\mu _{i}\,\mathrm {d} N_{i}\,}$