Normally in the country no care is taken of a cat's food, and he is left to live, it is said, from his hunting, but when he is hungry, he hunts the pantry's provisions far more than the mouse; because he does not pursue them and never watches them by need, but by instinct and attraction. And so, to neglect feeding a cat, is to render him at the same time useless and harmful, while with a few scraps regularly and properly given, the cat will never do any damage, and will render much service.
He goes on to say that it is all the more unreasonable to expect a cat to live from hunting in that cats take mice more for amusement than to eat: "A good cat takes many and eats few".
By 1876, Gordon Stables emphasized the need to give cats particular food:
If then, only for the sake of making (a cat) more valuable as a vermin-killer, she ought to have regular and sufficient food. A cat ought to be fed at least twice a day. Let her have a dish to herself, put down to her, and removed when the meal is finished. Experience is the best teacher as regards the quantity of a cat's food, and in quality let it be varied. Oatmeal porridge and milk, or white bread steeped in warm milk, to which a little sugar has been added, are both excellent breakfasts for puss; and for dinner she must have an allowance of flesh. Boiled lights are better for her than horse-meat, and occasionally let her have fish. Teach your cat to wait patiently till she is served—a spoiled cat is nearly as disagreeable as a spoiled child. If you want to have your cat nice and clean, treat her now and then to a square inch of fresh butter. It not only acts as a gentle laxative, but, the grease, combining in her mouth, with the alkalinity of her saliva, forms a kind of natural cat-soap, and you will see she will immediately commence washing herself, and become beautifully clean. (N.B.—If you wish to have a cat nicely done up for showing, touch her all over with a sponge dipped in fresh cream, when she licks herself the effect is wonderful.)
Remember that too much flesh-meat, especially liver,—which ought only to be given occasionally,—is very apt to induce a troublesome diarrhoea (looseness). Do not give your pet too many tit-bits at table; but whatever else you give her, never neglect to let her have her two regular meals.
In the same year, an advertisement for Spratt (better known for making dog food) said that their cat food entirely superseded "the unwholesome practice of feeding on boiled horse flesh; keeps the cat in perfect health." And, in another book on cats, Stables recommended the company's food:
Attend to the feeding, and, at a more than one-day show, cats ought to have water as well as milk. I think boiled lights, cut into small pieces, with a very small portion of bullock's liver and bread soaked, is the best food; but I have tried Spratt's Patent Cat Food with a great number of cats, both of my own and those of friends, and have nearly always found it agree; and at a cat show it would, I believe, be both handy and cleanly.
Spratt, which began by making dog biscuits, appears to also have been the first commercial producer of cat food.
In the United States, cat foods labeled as "complete and balanced" must meet standards established by the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) either by meeting a nutrient profile or by passing a feeding trial. Cat Food Nutrient Profiles were established in 1992 and updated in 1995 by the AAFCO's Feline Nutrition Expert Subcommittee. The updated profiles replaced the previous recommendations set by the National Research Council (NRC). Certain manufacturers label their products with terms such as premium, ultra premium, natural and holistic. Such terms currently have no legal definitions. [來源請求] However, "While most of the food supplied comes from within the US, the FDA ensures that standards are met within our borders even when components come from countries with less stringent ideas of safety or label integrity."
Vegan or vegetarian diets for cats are controversial. According to the United States National Research Council, "Cats require specific nutrients, not specific feedstuffs." The International Vegetarian Union, the Vegan Society and PETA are some of the organizations that support a vegan or vegetarian diet for cats. The Animal Protection Institute does not recommend a vegetarian diet for cats, and neither does the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA).
Not all animal advocacy groups take a firm position either way. The Association of Veterinarians for Animal Rights (now Humane Society Veterinary Medical Association) accepts that it is possible for a plant-based diet to be nutritionally adequate but stated in August 2006 that such diets "cannot at this time be reliably assured". This position was based on a 2004 study demonstrating that of two commercially available vegetarian cat diets tested, both were nutritionally deficient. The formulation error in one of these diets was promptly identified and corrected. Nevertheless, it remains likely that formulation errors will result in nutritional deficiencies in a wide range of commercially available diets from time to time, whether meat-based, vegetarian or vegan. Hence, regular (at least, annual) veterinary checkups of all companion animals is recommended, and brands may be occasionally varied.[與來源不符]
In 2006, the first study of the health of a population of long-term vegetarian cats was published in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. Most of the cats were fed a commercially-available vegan diet, though 35% were allowed outdoors. The study consisted of telephone questionnaires of the caregivers of 32 cats, and analysis of blood samples from some of them. The blood samples were tested for taurine and cobalamin deficiencies. Cobalamin levels were normal in all cats. Taurine levels were low in 3 out of 17 cats tested, but not low enough to be considered deficient. 97% of the caregivers perceived their cats to be healthy, including those with low taurine levels.
Food allergy is a non-seasonal disease with skin and/or gastrointestinal disorders. The main complaint is excessive scratching (Pruritus) which is usually resistant to treatment by steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The exact prevalence of food allergy in cats remains unknown. In 20 to 30% of the cases, cats have concurrent allergic diseases (atopy / flea-allergic dermatitis). A reliable diagnosis can only be made with dietary elimination-challenge trials. Allergy testing is necessary for the identification of the causative food component(s). Therapy consists of avoiding the offending food component(s).
The broad pet food recalls starting in March 2007 came in response to reports of renal failure in pets consuming mostly wet pet foods made with wheat gluten from a single Chinese company beginning in February 2007. Overall, several major companies recalled more than 100 brands of pet foods with most of the recalled product coming from Menu Foods. The most likely cause according to the FDA is the presence of melamine in the wheat gluten of the affected foods. Melamine is known to falsely inflate the protein content rating of substances in laboratory tests. The economic impact on the pet food market has been extensive, with Menu Foods alone losing roughly $30 Million from the recall.
|蛋氨酸 + 胱氨酸||%||1.10||1.10|
|苯丙氨酸 + 酪氨酸||%||0.88||0.88|
|氯 / 氯化物||%||0.3||0.3||
|铜 (膨化食品) e||mg/kg||15.0||5.0||
|铜 (罐头食品) e||mg/kg||5.0||5.0|
|维生素B1 / 硫胺 h||mg/kg||5.0||5.0||
|维生素B6 / 吡哆醇||mg/kg||4.0||4.0||
- ^ Knight, A. In defense of vegetarian cat food. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2005, 226 (4): 512–3. doi:10.2460/javma.2005.226.512. PMID 15742685.
- ^ Howell E. Food Enzymes for Health & Longevity Woodstock Valley, CT, US: Omangod Press. xx. 1980.
- ^  | Perry T. What's really for dinner? The truth about commercial pet food. The Animals' Agenda. 1996. Nov. - Dec.
- ^ Mauny de Mornay, Livre de l'eleveur et du proprietaire d'animaux domestiques 1837 http://books.google.com/books?printsec=frontcover&dq=intitle:%22animaux+domestiques%22&lr=&as_drrb_is=b&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=1800&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=1880&cd=36&pg=PA287&id=tBkGwxXqxpgC&num=100&as_brr=1#v=onepage&q&f=false
- ^ Nicolas Jean Baptiste Boyard, Manuel du bouvier et zoophile: ou l'art d'élever de soigner les animaux 1844 http://books.google.com/books?pg=RA2-PA328&dq=intitle:%22animaux+domestiques%22+chat&lr=&as_drrb_is=b&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=1800&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=1880&cd=49&id=ODpFAAAAYAAJ&num=100&as_brr=1#v=onepage&q=intitle%3A%22animaux%20domestiques%22%20chat&f=false
- ^ Gordon Stables, 'Cats': their points and characteristics, with Curiosities of cat life, and ... 1876 http://books.google.com/books?pg=PA371&dq=cat+food+%22cat+food%22&lr=&as_drrb_is=b&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=1850&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=1880&cd=11&id=iUUDAAAAQAAJ&num=100&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=cat%20food%20%22cat%20food%22&f=false
- ^ ad for Spratt's http://books.google.com/books?id=5-ANAAAAQAAJ&pg=PP8&dq=cat+food+%22cat+food%22&lr=&as_drrb_is=b&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=1850&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=1880&num=100&as_brr=0&cd=26#v=onepage&q=cat%20food%20%22cat%20food%22&f=false
- ^ Gordon Stable, The domestic cat, 1876, 61 http://books.google.com/books?printsec=frontcover&dq=%22+%22+intitle:cat&lr=&as_drrb_is=b&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=1850&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=1880&cd=10&pg=PA61&id=30oDAAAAQAAJ&num=100&as_brr=1#v=onepage&q&f=false
- ^ Cats' Meat Man: c.1901. Museum of London. [October 2, 2012].
- ^ 10.0 10.1 Nutrient Requirements of Cats. National Academies Press. Pg 30. ISBN 978-0-309-03682-5
- ^ Cat Food Reviews: The Pleasure of Their Company. petfoodtalk.com.
- ^ Subcommittee on Cat Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture, National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of cats. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press. 1986: 4–5. ISBN 0-309-03682-8.
- ^ 13.0 13.1 Subcommittee on Dog and Cat Nutrition (Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies). The Role of Vitamins and Minerals in the Diet for Cats. Nutrient Requirements of Cats and Dogs. ISBN 0-309-08628-0. National Research Council - National Academies. 2006 [2007-03-08].
- ^ FAQ. The International Vegetarian Union.
- ^  Vegan Society.
- ^  The Cat Guide.
- ^ Meatless Meals for Dogs and Cats. PETA.
- ^ Selecting a Commercial Pet Food. Born Free/Animal Protection Institute.
- ^ Nutrition Q & A: Vegetarian Diets for Dogs. ASPCA.
- ^ "AVAR position statements: Vegan and Vegetarian Cat and Dog Food Diets" Association of Veterinarians for Animal Rights
- ^ Gray, CM; Sellon, RK, Freeman LM. Nutritional adequacy of two vegan diets for cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2004, 225 (11): 1670–5.
- ^ 22.0 22.1 Knight, A. In defense of vegetarian cat food. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2005, 226 (4): 512–3.
- ^ Wakefield, LA; Shofer, FS & Michel, KE. Evaluation of cats fed vegetarian diets and attitudes of their caregivers. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2006, 229 (1): 70–3.
- ^ Edinboro, Charlotte H.; Scott-Moncrieff, Catharine; Janovitz, Evan; Thacker, Leon ; Glickman, Larry T. Epidemiologic study of relationships between consumption of commercial canned food and risk of hyperthyroidism in cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2004-03, 224 (6): 879–86 [2008-03-10]. doi:10.2460/javma.2004.224.879.
- ^ Verlinden A, Hesta M, Millet S, Janssens GP. Food allergy in dogs and cats: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2006, 46 (3): 259–73. doi:10.1080/10408390591001117. PMID 16527756.
- ^ John E. Bauer, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.N.. Nutritional Requirements and Related Diseases. The Merck Veterinary Manual, 9th edition. ISBN 0-911910-50-6. Merck & Co., Inc. 2005-01-01 [2006-10-27].
- ^ David A. Dzanis, D.V.M., Ph.D., DACVN Division of Animal Feeds, Center for Veterinary Medicine. SELECTING NUTRITIOUS PET FOODS. INFORMATION FOR CONSUMERS. Food and Drug Administration - Center for Veterinary Medicine. 1997-11 [2005-01-20]. [失效連結]
- 美国食品药品监督管理局 - 兽药中心
- Information For Consumers - FDA's Regulation Of Pet Food（英文）
- Information For Consumers - Information On Marketing A Pet Food Product（英文）
- Information For Consumers - Interpreting Pet Food Labels（英文）
- Information For Consumers - Interpreting Pet Food Labels - Special Use Foods （英文）
- Vegetarian Diets For Pets?（英文）
- Report on the risk from pentobarbital in dog food（英文）
- The Vegetarian Society UK on concerns relating to a vegetarian diet for cats（英文）
- The Cat That Ate Tofu Alternet article on vegan cat food（英文）
- Vegan Pet Food: A Discussion Animal Voices audio interview with Evolution pet food CEO（英文）
- From Max's House Feline Medical And Behavior Database（英文）
- Buffington CA. Dry foods and risk of disease in cats. Can. Vet. J. 2008-06, 49 (6): 561–3. PMC 2387258. PMID 18624064. – disputes the claim that dry food is harmful（英文）
- Get The Facts - What's Really In Pet Food from Animal Protection Institute（英文）
- From AAFCO