瑪利亞·金布塔斯

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瑪利亞·金布塔斯於1993年在德國所攝

瑪利亞·金布塔斯立陶宛語Marija Gimbutienė,1921年1月23日 - 1994年2月2日)為美國籍的立陶宛考古學家,以研究古歐洲新石器時代青銅時代文化的學術成就而聞名於世,而她的的墳塚假說亦被廣泛接納。此假說指出原始印歐語族的起源源於東歐大草原瑪利亞·金布塔斯認為,在立陶宛以及橫跨歐亞大陸的新石器時期的遺址提供了考古證據,證明古代印歐社會既不是母系社會也不是父系社會,但後來她又在某些學術圈子提出意見,認定這些古代社會皆為母系氏族。[1]

學說[编辑]

1989年9月金布塔斯身在愛爾蘭米斯郡紐格蘭奇後面的路沿石52號

1956年金布塔斯在《史前的東歐(第一部分)》中首先提出該假說時,她綜合地利用了考古學和語言學來對印歐起源問題進行研究。假說將原始印歐語使用者與東歐大草原的亞姆納文化及其前身相聯繫,並將印歐人的原住地定位在東歐大草原,提出晚期原始印歐語的各種方言曾在這一地區被使用。假說並且認為該文化逐漸擴張直至佔據整個的東歐大草原,最晚階段的文化(墳塚丁)即為前3000年左右的亞姆納文化。[2]

逝世[编辑]

1993年,瑪利亞·金布塔斯獲頒立陶宛考納斯維陶塔斯馬格努斯大學榮譽博士學位。1994年2月2日金布塔斯在洛杉磯去世,終年73歲。她被埋葬在考納斯的Petrašiūnai公墓。

著作[编辑]

專著[编辑]

  • Gimbutas, Marija (1946). Die Bestattung in Litauen in der vorgeschichtlichen Zeit. Tübingen: H. Laupp.
  • Gimbutas, Marija (1956). The Prehistory of Eastern Europe. Part I: Mesolithic, Neolithic and Copper Age Cultures in Russia and the Baltic Area. American School of Prehistoric Research, Harvard University Bulletin No. 20. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum.
  • Gimbutas, Marija (1958). Ancient symbolism in Lithuanian folk art. Philadelphia: American Folklore Society, Memoirs of the American Folklore Society 49.
  • Gimbutas, Marija (1963). The Balts. London : Thames and Hudson, Ancient peoples and places 33.
  • Gimbutas, Marija (1965). Bronze Age cultures in Central and Eastern Europe. The Hague/London: Mouton.
  • Gimbutas, Marija (1971). The Slavs. London : Thames and Hudson, Ancient peoples and places 74.
  • Gimbutas, Marija (1974). The Gods and Goddesses of Old Europe, 7000 to 3500 BC: Myths, Legends and Cult Images. London: Thames and Hudson.
  • Gimbutienė, Marija (1985). Baltai priešistoriniais laikais : etnogenezė, materialinė kultūra ir mitologija. Vilnius: Mokslas.
  • Gimbutas, Marija (1989). The Language of the Goddess: Unearthing the Hidden Symbols of Western Civilization. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
  • Gimbutas, Marija (1991). The Civilization of the Goddess: The World of Old Europe. San Francisco: Harper.
  • Gimbutas, Marija (1992). Die Ethnogenese der europäischen Indogermanen. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck, Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft, Vorträge und kleinere Schriften 54.
  • Gimbutas, Marija (1994). Das Ende Alteuropas. Der Einfall von Steppennomaden aus Südrussland und die Indogermanisierung Mitteleuropas. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft.
  • Gimbutas, Marija, edited and supplemented by Miriam Robbins Dexter (1999) The Living Goddesses. Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press.

著集[编辑]

  • Gimbutas, Marija (ed.) (1974). Obre, Neolithic Sites in Bosnia. Sarajevo: A. Archaeologic.
  • Gimbutas, Marija (ed.) (1976). Neolithic Macedonia as reflected by excavation at Anza, southeast Yugoslavia. Los Angeles: Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Monumenta archaeologica 1.
  • Renfrew, Colin, Marija Gimbutas and Ernestine S. Elster (1986). Excavations at Sitagroi, a prehistoric village in northeast Greece. Vol. 1. Los Angeles : Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Monumenta archaeologica 13.
  • Gimbutas, Marija, Shan Winn and Daniel Shimabuku (1989). Achilleion: a Neolithic settlement in Thessaly, Greece, 6400-5600 B.C. Los Angeles: Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles. Monumenta archaeologica 14.

文章[编辑]

  • 1960: "Culture Change in Europe at the Start of the Second Millennium B.C. A Contribution to the Indo-European Problem", Selected Papers of the Fifth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences. Philadelphia, September 1-9, 1956, ed. A.F.C. Wallace. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press, 1960, pp. 540-552.
  • 1961: "Notes on the chronology and expansion of the Pit-grave culture", L’Europe à la fin de l’Age de la pierre, eds., J. Bohm & S. J. De Laet. Prague: Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, 1961, pp. 193-200.
  • 1963: "The Indo-Europeans, archaeological problems", American Anthropologist 65 (1963): 815-836.
  • 1970: "Proto-Indo-European Culture: The Kurgan Culture during the Fifth, Fourth, and Third Millennia B.C.", Indo-European and Indo-Europeans. Papers Presented at the Third Indo-European Conference at the University of Pennsylvania, ed. George Cardona, Henry M. Hoenigswald & Alfred Senn. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1970, pp. 155-197.
  • 1973: "Old Europe c. 7000–3500 BC: The Earliest European Civilization Before the Infiltration of the Indo-European Peoples", Journal of Indo-European Studies (JIES) 1 (1973): 1–21.
  • 1977: "The First Wave of Eurasian Steppe Pastoralists into Copper Age Europe", JIES 5 (1977): 277-338.
  • "Gold Treasure at Varna", Archaeology 30, 1 (1977): 44-51.
  • 1979: "The Three Waves of Kurgan People into Old Europe, 4500-2500 BC", Archives suisses d’anthropologie genérale. 43-2 (1979): 113-137.
  • 1980: "The Kurgan wave #2 (c.3400-3200 BC) into Europe and the following transformation of culture", JIES 8 (1980): 273-315.
  • "The Temples of Old Europe", Archaeology 33-6 (1980): 41-50.
  • 1982: "Old Europe in the Fifth Millennium B.C.: The European Situation on the Arrival of Indo-Europeans", The Indo-Europeans in the Fourth and Third Millennia BC, ed. Edgar C. Polomé. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers, 1982, pp. 1-60.
  • "Women and Culture in Goddess-oriented Old Europe", The Politics of Women’s Spirituality, ed. Charlene Spretnak. New York: Doubleday, 1982, pp. 22-31.
  • "Vulvas, Breasts, and Buttocks of the Goddess Creatress: Commentary on the Origins of Art", The Shape of the Past: Studies in Honor of Franklin D. Murphy, eds. Giorgio Buccellati & Charles Speroni. Los Angeles: UCLA Institute of Archaeology, 1982.
  • 1985: "Primary and Secondary Homeland of the Indo-Europeans: Comments on Gamkrelidze-Ivanov Articles", JIES 13:1-2 (1985): 185-202.
  • 1986: "Kurgan Culture and the Horse", critique of the article "The ‘Kurgan Culture’, Indo-European origins and the domestication of the horse: a reconsideration" by David W. Anthony (same issue, pp. 291-313), Current Anthropology 27-4 (1986): 305-307.
  • 1987: "The Pre-Christian Religion of Lithuania", La Cristianizzazione della Lituania. Rome, 1987.
  • 1988: "A Review of Archaeology and Language by Colin Renfrew", Current Anthropology 29-3 (Jul 1988): 453-456.
  • "Accounting For a Great Change", critique of Archaeology and Language by C. Renfrew, London Times Literary Supplement (Jun 24-30), 1988, p. 714.
  • 1990: "The Social Structure of the Old Europe. Part II", JIES 18 (1990): 225-284.
  • 1992: "The Chronologies of Eastern Europe: Neolithic through Early Bronze Age", Chronologies in Old World Archaeology, vol. 1, ed. R.W. Ehrich. Chicago, London: University of Chicago Press, 1992, pp. 395-406.

文集[编辑]

  • Dexter, Miriam Robbins and Karlene Jones-Bley (eds) (1997). The Kurgan culture and the Indo-Europeanization of Europe: Selected articles from 1952 to 1993 by M. Gimbutas. Journal of Indo-European Studies monograph 18. Washington DC: Institute for the Study of Man.

榮譽研究[编辑]

  • Skomal, Susan Nacev & Edgar C. Polomé (eds) (1987). Proto-Indo-European: The Archaeology of a Linguistic Problem. Studies in Honor of Marija Gimbutas. Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man.
  • Marler, Joan, ed. (1997). From the Realm of the Ancestors: An Anthology in Honor of Marija Gimbutas. Manchester, CT: Knowledge, Ideas & Trends, Inc.
  • Dexter, Miriam Robbins and Edgar C. Polomé, eds. (1997). Varia on the Indo-European Past: Papers in Memory of Gimbutas, Marija. Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph #19. Washington, DC: The Institute for the Study of Man.

另見[编辑]

資料來源[编辑]

  1. ^ C. Spretnak (2011). "Anatomy of a Backlash: Concerning the Work of Marija Gimbutas", The Journal of Archaeomythology, vol. 7.
  2. ^ History And Archaeology Through Laboratory Examinations, Tome Egumenoski & Aleksandar Donski, 2012 pp.8.[與來源不符]

參考文獻[编辑]