瓦普寺

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联合国教科文组织认定的世界遗产
瓦普寺: 左起, 瓦普寺南面, the tiers leading to the central sanctuary, the mountain peak shrouded in mist,瓦普寺北面
基本資料
國家 Flag of Laos.svg 老撾
地区** 亞洲太平洋
编号 481
註冊類型 自然遺產
評定標準 自然遺產{{{criterion_n}}}
註冊歷史
註冊年份 2001
其他
地圖
年代 25th
* 名稱依據世界遺產名錄註冊。
** 地區以聯合國教科文組織所劃分为准。

瓦普寺,是一座位於老撾南部占巴塞省地區的印度教寺院。

此寺建於公元5世紀柬埔寨扶南時代,供奉湿婆神的象徵林伽,但在13世紀吳哥王朝接受上座部佛教後被改成佛教寺院一直保留至現在。

瓦普寺在2001年成為世界遺產。

重建計劃[编辑]

After the first scientific description on the late 19th and early 20th century there has been little scientific activity at the site until the early 90s. With the Lao-UNESCO projects starting in 1987 and the designation as UNESCO World Heitage Site in 2001 archeological and conservational activities increased heavily. Examples of the most recent conservation projects are:[1]

  • Global Heritage Fund, in association with the Lerici Institute (Italy) and the government of Laos, is providing emergency conservation of temple structures at this largest of archaeological sites in Laos.[1] The stabilization and sustained conservation of Nandin Hall is the primary focus of these efforts, however the Global Heritage Fund-led team is working with local communities for training and development.[2]
  • 2005-2012: French-Lao cooperation project (French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs / Lao Ministryof Information and Culture): Priority Solidarity Funds "Vat Phou-Champasak, enhancement and development of the historical and cultural heritage" (FSP 2005-75). This project included restoration of the northern hall of the southern quadrangle (palace), cultural project on the intangible heritage of Champasak: Rediscovery of the Champasak Shadow Puppet Theatre and organization of a theatre tour in the villages of the district of Champasak accompanied by Cinema Tuk-tuk, Layout of the Sala and surroundings of Vat Phou site. Objectives of the project were: institutional support for the creation of a body specialized management of the site, training of the scientific, technical and administrative staff, and development of the site and its economic valuation.
  • 2006: Restoration project for the temple of Nandin by the Italian mission
  • 2009: Restoration project for the northern palace by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). The Indian Team from Archaeological survey of India, headed by Er. R. S. Jamwal, conducted studies of foundations, drainage problems, super structural elements as well as did the documentation, recording, survey work etc. for the Northern Quadrangle of temple complex. The conservation and Restoration work of Northern Quadrangle is likely to be commenced from ensuing working season.
  • 2010: Restoration project for the southern palace, with Jean-Marc Houlteau, stonemason.
  • 2011 : Restoration project for the southern quadrangle (palace), with Jean-Marc Simon-Bernardini and Johann Gautreau, stonemasons.
  • 2014 : Non-intrusive stone analyses, by Professor Christian Fischer.


Presentation and visits[编辑]

Today the site is open to the public for both religious activities and touristic visits. Opening hours are 8:00 am – 6:00 pm, and the entrance fee is 50.000 LAK.[2]

The site also features a museum which houses artifacts of the temple complex of several centuries, such as statues of Shiva, Vishnu and Nandin, as well as Buddhist statues.[3] The building of the museum has been limited to a specific size in order to minimize altering effects on the underground site and the view.[4]

備註[编辑]

  1. ^ bazin, david. Scientifics missions. vatphou-champassak.com. [2017-01-22] (British English). 
  2. ^ Administrator. Schedule and Fees. www.vatphou-champassak.com. [2017-01-22] (British English). 
  3. ^ Vat Phou Champassak World Heritage Department. Vat Phou Champassak. The Temple of the Mountain. Visitor's Guide. Vat Phou Champassak World Heritage Department. 2012. ISBN 978-9932-000-62-3. 
  4. ^ Administrator. Exhibition Hall. www.vatphou-champassak.com. [2017-01-22] (British English). 
  1. ^ Projet de Recherches en Archaeologie Lao. Vat Phu: The Ancient City, The Sanctuary, The Spring (pamphlet).
  2. ^ Freeman, A Guide to Khmer Temples in Thailand and Laos p. 200-201.
  3. ^ ICOMOS report p. 71.
  4. ^ ICOMOS report p. 72.
  5. ^ Global Heritage Fund - Where We Work - Wat Phu, Laos Accessed on 2009-04-28.
  6. ^ Global Heritage Fund - Where We Work - Wat Phu, Laos Accessed on 2009-04-28.

參考[编辑]

  • É. Aymonier, Le Cambodge. II Les provinces siamoises, Paris 1901;
  • E. Lunet de Lajonquiére, Inventaire descriptif des monuments d’Indochine. Le Cambodge, II, Paris 1907;
  • H. Marchal, Le Temple de Vat Phou, province de Champassak, Éd. du département des Cultes du Gouvernement royal du Laos
  • H Parmentier法语Henri Parmentier, «Le temple de Vat Phu», Bulletin de l’École Française d’Extrême-Orient, 14/2, 1914, p. 1-31;
  • M. Freeman, A Guide to Khmer Temples in Thailand and Laos. Weatherhill 1996. ISBN 0-8348-0450-6.
  • M. Santoni et al., «Excavations at Champasak and Wat Phu (Southern Laos) », in R. Ciarla, F. Rispoli (ed.), South-East Asian Archaeology 1992, Roma 1997, p. 233-63;
  • M. Cucarzi, O. Nalesini et al., «Carta archeologica informatizzata: il progetto UNESCO per l’area di Wat Phu», in B. Amendolea (ed.), Carta archeologica e pianificazione territoriale, Roma 1999, p. 264-71;
  • UNESCO Champasak Heritage Management Plan, Bangkok 1999 [3];
  • International Council on Monuments and Sites report on World Heritage Site application, September 2001;
  • O. Nalesini, «Wat Phu», in Enciclopedia archeologica. Asia, Roma 2005.
  • Ch. Higham. The Civilization of Angkor. Phoenix 2001. ISBN 1-84212-584-2.
  • Projet de Recherches en Archaeologie Lao. Vat Phu: The Ancient City, The Sanctuary, The Spring (pamphlet).
  • Global Heritage Fund - Where We Work - Wat Phu, Laos Accessed on 2009-04-28.
  • Recherches nouvelles sur le Laos - EFEO(école française d'extrême orient) - Yves Goudineau & Michel Lorrillard - 2008 - 678 pages.