生物指標

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石蛾為監測水質的生物指標[1]

生物指標(Bioindicator)又稱指標物種指示物種(indicator species),係指族群狀態可反映環境品質的物種。研究人員利用生物指標進行生物監測英语Biomonitoring[2][3],即藉由觀察指標種的族群變化,推得環境受污染的情形。生物指標可反映污染持續時間對生物的間接影響等藉由物理或化學方法無法獲知的額外資訊[4]。研究人員不需觀測環境中的所有生物,透過觀察單一指標物種即可偵測整體環境的變化情形[5]

有些指標物種僅適用於特定的環境,在不同環境或地理區域的準確度會下降[6]

案例[编辑]

肺衣英语Lobaria pulmonaria對空氣污染相當敏感,可用作指標生物

細小裸藻英语Euglena gracilis[7][8]雙核草履蟲英语Paramecium biaurelia[9]苔蘚地衣石蛾蟾蜍[10][11]螯蝦[12]等生物均可作為環境的生物指標,檢測環境中的二氧化硫氮氧化物殺蟲劑重金屬或其他化學毒素等污染物。

參見[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Barbour, M.T.; Gerritsen, J.; Stribling, J.B. Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish, Second Edition (Report). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1999 [2021-12-12]. EPA 841-B-99-002. (原始内容存档于2021-12-12). 
  2. ^ NCSU Water Quality Group. Biomonitoring. WATERSHEDSS: A Decision Support System for Nonpoint Source Pollution Control. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University. [2016-07-31]. (原始内容存档于2016-07-23). 
  3. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water and Office of Research and Development. National Rivers and Streams Assessment 2008-2009: A Collaborative Study (PDF). Washington D.C. March 2016 [2021-12-12]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2021-07-02). 
  4. ^ Karr, James R. Assessment of biotic integrity using fish communities. Fisheries. 1981, 6 (6): 21–27. ISSN 1548-8446. doi:10.1577/1548-8446(1981)006<0021:AOBIUF>2.0.CO;2. 
  5. ^ Bioindicators. Science Learning Hub. The University of Waikato, New Zealand. 2015-02-10 [2021-12-12]. (原始内容存档于2021-12-12). 
  6. ^ Monteagudo, Laura; Moreno, José Luis. Benthic freshwater cyanobacteria as indicators of anthropogenic pressures. Ecological Indicators. 2016-08-01, 67: 693–702. ISSN 1470-160X. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.03.035. 
  7. ^ Azizullah, Azizullah; Murad, Waheed; Muhammad, Adnan; Waheed, Ullah; Häder, Donat-Peter. Gravitactic orientation of Euglena gracilis - a sensitive endpoint for ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants. Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2013, 1 (4): 1–4. doi:10.3389/fenvs.2013.00004可免费查阅. 
  8. ^ Tahedl, Harald; Donat-Peter, Haeder. Automated Biomonitoring Using Real Time Movement Analysis of Euglena gracilis. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2001, 48 (2): 161–169. PMID 11161690. doi:10.1006/eesa.2000.2004. 
  9. ^ Hemmersbach, Ruth; Simon, Anja; Waßer, Kai; Hauslage, Jens; Christianen, Peter C.M.; Albers, Peter W.; Lebert, Michael; Richter, Peter; Alt, Wolfgang; Anken, Ralf. Impact of a High Magnetic Field on the Orientation of Gravitactic Unicellular Organisms—A Critical Consideration about the Application of Magnetic Fields to Mimic Functional Weightlessness. Astrobiology. 2014, 14 (3): 205–215. Bibcode:2014AsBio..14..205H. PMC 3952527可免费查阅. PMID 24621307. doi:10.1089/ast.2013.1085. 
  10. ^ Simon, E., Braun, M. & Tóthmérész, B. Non-destructive Method of Frog (Rana esculenta L.) Skeleton Elemental Analysis Used During Environmental Assessment.. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2010, 209: 467. doi:10.1007/s11270-009-0214-6. 
  11. ^ Lambert, M. R. K. Environmental Effects of Heavy Spillage from a Destroyed Pesticide Store near Hargeisa (Somaliland) Assessed During the Dry Season, Using Reptiles and Amphibians as Bioindicators. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 1997-01-01, 32 (1): 80–93. PMID 9002438. S2CID 24315472. doi:10.1007/s002449900158. 
  12. ^ Füreder, L.; Reynolds, J. D. Is Austropotamobius Pallipes a Good Bioindicator?. Bulletin Français de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture. 2003, (370–371): 157–163 [2021-12-12]. ISSN 0767-2861. doi:10.1051/kmae:2003011可免费查阅. (原始内容存档于2022-01-09).