# 电导率 (电解质)

## 定义

${\displaystyle R={\frac {l}{A}}\rho .}$

${\displaystyle R^{*}=C\times \rho ^{*}}$

${\displaystyle \kappa ={\frac {1}{\rho ^{*}}}={\frac {C}{R^{*}}}}$

${\displaystyle \kappa =G^{*}\times G}$

## 理论

${\displaystyle \Lambda _{m}={\frac {\kappa }{c}}}$

### 强电解质

${\displaystyle \Lambda _{m}=\Lambda _{m}^{0}-K{\sqrt {c}}}$

${\displaystyle \Lambda _{m}^{0}>K{\sqrt {c}}}$


${\displaystyle \Lambda _{m}^{0}=\nu _{+}\lambda _{+}^{0}+\nu _{-}\lambda _{-}^{0}}$

• ${\displaystyle \nu _{+}}$${\displaystyle \nu _{-}}$分别为溶解1摩尔电解质所离解的阳离子和阴离子的摩尔数；
• ${\displaystyle \lambda _{+}^{0}}$${\displaystyle \lambda _{-}^{0}}$ 分别为阳离子和阴离子的极限摩尔电导率。

298 K 下水溶液中离子的极限电导率

H+ 34.96 OH 19.91
Li+ 3.869 Cl 7.634
Na+ 5.011 Br 7.84
K+ 7.350 I 7.68
Mg2+ 10.612 SO42− 15.96
Ca2+ 11.900 NO3 7.14
Ba2+ 12.728 CH3CO2 4.09

${\displaystyle \Lambda _{m}=\Lambda _{m}^{0}-(A+B\Lambda _{m}^{0}){\sqrt {c}}}$

### 弱电解质

${\displaystyle {\frac {1}{\Lambda _{m}}}={\frac {1}{\Lambda _{m}^{0}}}+{\frac {\Lambda _{m}c}{K_{a}(\Lambda _{m}^{0})^{2}}}}$

### 高浓度

A+ + B ⇌ A+B; K=[A+][B]/[A+B]

## 参考文献

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