疯马

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Crazy Horse
疑似「瘋馬」的照片,攝於1877年
部落 奥格拉拉·拉科塔
出生 约1840年
逝世 1877年9月5日(37岁)
内布拉斯加州罗宾逊要塞
本名 Tȟašúŋke Witkó
昵称 Curly, Light Hair
Known for 小大角战役指挥官

疯马拉科塔語:Tȟašúŋke Witkó;英语:Crazy Horse[1]約1845年-1877年9月5日),北美洲原住民印第安人民族苏族酋長军事家

生平[编辑]

疯马以勇猛善战著称,是北美印第安战争的靈魂人物之一;曾與奧格拉拉族頭目紅雲薩滿巫師坐牛,在美西地区抵抗白人的入侵。最有名的战役是,为了保护圣地而战的小大角战役。他們率領數千名印第安人,以優勢兵力,在黑山山谷中,歼灭了知名的第七骑兵团兩百餘騎兵,并擊殺美国内战中闻名的团长卡士達

美国政府得知消息,停止向苏族提供食物,同时赶走草原上的野牛,使他們無法獵食。为了保全部落,在1877年的五月初,疯马等酋長在罗宾逊军区投降,在1877年因为被指有越獄嫌疑,遭美軍就地正法

參見[编辑]

参考[编辑]

  1. ^ 拉科塔語名字意思是「他的马是疯狂的」,英文名字則是拉科塔語名字的意譯。關於其名字黑麋鹿解釋道:「『瘋馬』這名字並不表示他的馬瘋了,而是他的馬在夢中以古怪的方式跳舞」。(引自黑麋鹿口述,約翰·內哈特紀錄,賓靜蓀譯《巫士.詩人.神話:黑麋鹿如是說》(台北:立緒文化,2003),頁75-76)

延伸閱讀[编辑]

  • Ambrose, Stephen E. Crazy Horse and Custer: The epic clash of two great warriors at the Little Bighorn. 1975.
  • Bray, Kingsley M. Crazy Horse: A Lakota Life. 2006. ISBN 0-8061-3785-1
  • Clark, Robert. The Killing of Chief Crazy Horse: Three Eyewitness Views by the Indian, Chief He Dog the Indian White, William Garnett the White Doctor, Valentine McGillycuddy. 1988. ISBN 0-8032-6330-9
  • Marshall, Joseph M. III. The Journey of Crazy Horse: A Lakota History. 2004.
  • Guttmacher, Peter and David W. Baird. Ed. Crazy Horse: Sioux War Chief. New York Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 1994. 0–120. ISBN 0-7910-1712-5
  • McMurtry, Larry. Crazy Horse (Penguin Lives). Puffin Books. 1999. ISBN 0-670-88234-8
  • Pinn, Lionel Kitpu'se. Greengrass Pipe Dancers. 2000. ISBN 0-87961-250-9
  • Powers, Thomas. The Killing of Crazy Horse. Random House, Inc. 2010. ISBN 978-0-375-41446-6.
  • Sandoz, Mari. Crazy Horse, the Strange Man of the Oglalas, a biography. 1942. ISBN 0-8032-9211-2
  • "Debating Crazy Horse: Is this the Famous Oglala". Whispering Wind magazine, Vol 34 #3, 2004. A discussion on the improbability of the Garryowen photo being that of Crazy Horse (the same photo shown here). The clothing, the studio setting all date the photo 1890–1910.
  • The Authorized Biography of Crazy Horse and His Family Part One: Creation, Spirituality, and the Family Tree. DVD. William Matson and Mark Frethem, producers. Documentary based on over 100 hours of footage shot of family oral history detailed interviews and all Crazy Horse sites. Family had final approval on end product. Reelcontact.com, 2006.
  • The Authorized Biography of Crazy Horse and His Family Part Two: Defending the Homeland Prior to the 1868 Treaty'. DVD William Matson and Mark Frethem, Producers. Reel Contact Productions, 2007.
  • Russell Freedman, The Life and Death of Crazy Horse. Holiday House. 1996. ISBN 978-0-8234-1219-8

外部链接[编辑]