直布罗陀历史

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Painting of a panoramic view from the Spanish lines, showing four men, two in British Army uniform, looking across a sandy isthmus towards the Rock of Gibraltar with the bay and the African coast visible in the background
从西班牙边界线看直布罗陀北面的风光(1782)
Locator map of Gibraltar's location in Europe
直布罗陀在伊比利亚半岛南端的位置

直布罗陀半岛伊比利亚半岛最南端地中海沿岸的小半岛,有2900年的有人居住的历史。

地理背景[编辑]

直布羅陀海峽的註釋衛星視圖

直布羅陀的歷史已帶動其靠近地中海的入口的戰略地位。這是一個狹長的半島的東側直布羅陀灣 6千米(4英里)從城市阿爾赫西拉斯。直布羅陀位於西班牙最南部海岸的地中海最窄點之一,從海岸僅24公里(15英里)摩洛哥北非。它在海灣地位使其成為優越的自然錨地的船舶。[1]正如一位作家所言,“誰控制直布羅陀還控制船隻進出地中海的行動,在軍事和海軍力量,幾方面地方比直布羅陀更具戰略性的位置。“[2]

領土方面的措施只有6.7平方公里(2.6平方英里)。大部分的土地面積是由直布羅陀的陡峭岩石它達到426米(1398英尺)高度佔據。直布羅陀的小鎮坐落在岩石上的半島西側的基礎。窄,地勢低窪的地峽連接半島的西班牙本土。北工作面礦是一個近乎垂直的山崖396米(1299英尺)高,俯瞰峽部; 唯一的陸路通道鎮是通過沿海地帶約350米(1150英尺)寬,這是前窄得多的土地復墾從海在20世紀。.[1]

因此,直布羅陀的地理位置賦予了它相當自然的防禦性優勢。這幾乎是不可能按比例岩石的東部或北部兩側,它們是垂直或基本如此。在南部,周圍的相對平坦的區域歐羅巴點是懸崖峭壁這是長達30米(97英尺)高的包圍。西邊是唯一可行的區域著陸,但即使在其上鎮建設工作提高到一個後衛的優勢,陡峭的山坡。這些因素給了它千百年來一個巨大的軍事意義。[1]

史前史与古代史[编辑]

穆斯林统治(711-1309,1333-1462)[编辑]

西班牙统治(1462-1704)[编辑]

英国统治(1704-现在)[编辑]

另见[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

引用[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Dennis, pp. 7–8
  2. ^ Krieger, p. 8

来源[编辑]

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