盾形動物門

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索
盾形動物門
化石时期:567–550 Ma
埃迪卡拉紀
Dickinsonia Archaeaspinus.jpg
科学分类 编辑
界: 动物界 Animalia
亚界: 真后生动物亚界 Eumetazoa
演化支 副同源异形基因动物 ParaHoxozoa
演化支 浮浪幼虫样动物 Planulozoa
演化支 两侧对称动物 Bilateria
门: 盾形動物門 Proarticulata
Fedonkin英语Mikhail Fedonkin, 1985
[1]

盾形動物門學名Proarticulata),又名盾狀動物門[2],是一個已經完全滅絕動物,由Mikhail Fedonkin英语Mikhail Fedonkin在1985年所建立。[3][4]牠們是一類非常早期的兩側對稱動物。其化石僅出現於前寒武紀埃迪卡拉紀地層當中。其兩側的體節呈滑移對稱英语Glide reflection而非簡單的兩側對稱,具有這種特殊對稱性質的體節被稱為異構體節英语Isomer (Proarticulata)[5][6]

形態學[编辑]

盾形動物門下三物種比較圖(Vendia sokoloviDickinsonia costataYorgia waggoneri

Vendiamorpha[编辑]

其身體完全分割,所有異構體節向後彎曲,第一個異構體節通常比其餘的大得多。前端的兩個異構體節部分融合。例如:文德蟲英语VendiaParavendiaKarakhtia等。[5][7][8][9]

側水母綱(Dipleurozoa)[编辑]

Cephalozoa[编辑]

其身體前端沒有異構體節,所以呈現不完整的分割。例如:約吉亞蟲英语YorgiaPraecambridium英语PraecambridiumAndiva英语AndivaArchaeaspinusIvovicia斯普里格蠕蟲Marywadea英语MarywadeaCyanorus等。[5][7][9][10]

其他地位未定物種[编辑]

Onega stepanovi英语Onega stepanoviTamga hamulifera英语Tamga (genus)中,所有的異構體節都被外圍的不分割區域包圍。Onega stepanovi的異構體節彼此相互接觸,形成筏狀區域,至於Tamga hamulifera的異構體節則彼此分離且不接觸。在Lossinia英语Lossinia中,中心未分割的區域沒有明顯可見的異構體節,而是將來自未分割區域外圍的葉狀異構體節作為“橫向關節”發出。[10]

[编辑]

Andiva ivantsovi
Andiva ivantsovi
Dickinsonia costata
Dickinsonia costata
Spriggina floundensi
Spriggina floundensi
Yorgia waggoneri
Yorgia waggoneri

實體化石[编辑]

A. parva Fedonkin, 1980
A. ivantsovi Fedonkin, 2002
A. fedonkini Ivantsov, 2001
C. bilobatum Wade, 1971
C. singularis Ivantsov, 2004
D. costata Sprigg, 1947
D. lissa Wade, 1972
D. menneri Keller 1976[10] (=Vendomia menneri Keller 1976[14])
D. tenuis Glaessner et Wade, 1966
I. rugulosa Ivantsov, 2007
K. nessovi Ivantsov, 2004
L. lissetskii Ivantsov, 2007
M. ovata Glaessner et Wade, 1966
O. stepanovi Fedonkin, 1976
O. concentricum Glaessner et Wade, 1966
P. janae Ivantsov, 2001 (=Vendia janae Ivantsov, 2001)
P. hanseni Jenkins et Gehling, 1978
P. mirus Fedonkin, 1983
P. siggilum Glaessner et Wade, 1966
S. floundersi Glaessner, 1958
T. hamulifera Ivantsov, 2007
V. plumosa Fedonkin, 1983
V. sokolovi Keller, 1969
V. rachiata Ivantsov, 2004
W. aitkeni Narbonne, 1994[15]
Y. waggoneri Ivantsov, 1999

痕跡化石[编辑]

E. axiferus Ivantsov, 2002
E. waggoneris Ivantsov, 2011 (Yorgia waggoneri的痕跡化石)
E. costatus Ivantsov, 2011 (Dickinsonia costata的痕跡化石)

參見[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Mikhail A. Fedonkin, James G. Gehling, Kathleen Grey, Guy M. Narbonne, and Patricia Vickers-Rich foreword by Arthur C. Clarke. (2008) "The Rise of Animals. Evolution and Diversification of the Kingdom Animalia"
  2. ^ 動物 - Wikipedia (日语). 
  3. ^ M. A. Fedonkin (1985). "Systematic Description of Vendian Metazoa". In Sokolov, B. S. and Iwanowski, A. B., eds., "Vendian System: Historical–Geological and Paleontological Foundation, Vol. 1: Paleontology". Moscow: Nauka, pp. 70–106.
  4. ^ Fedonkin, M.A. The origin of the Metazoa in the light of the Proterozoic fossil record (PDF). Paleontological Research. 31 March 2003, 7 (1): 9–41. doi:10.2517/prpsj.7.9. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Ivantsov, A.Y. Vendia and Other Precambrian "Arthropods". Paleontological Journal. 2001, 35 (4): 335–343. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 Ivantsov, A.Y. A New Dickinsoniid from the Upper Vendian of the White Sea Winter Coast (Russia, Arkhangelsk Region). Paleontological Journal. 1999, 33 (3): 233–241. 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Ivantsov, A. Yu. New Proarticulata from the Vendian of the Arkhangel’sk Region (PDF). Paleontological Journal. 2004, 38 (3): 247–253. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2007-09-27). 
  8. ^ Ivantsov, A.Y.; Malakhovskaya, Y.E.; Serezhnikova, E.A. Some Problematic Fossils from the Vendian of the Southeastern White Sea Region (PDF). Paleontological Journal. 2004, 38 (1): 1–9. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2007-07-04). 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 9.2 Ivantsov, A.Y. (2004) "Vendian Animals in the Phylum Proarticulata" 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. The Rise and Fall of the Vendian Biota. IGSP Project 493. Abstracts. Prato, Italy, p. 52.
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 Ivantsov, A. Yu. Small Vendian transversely Articulated fossils. Paleontological Journal. April 2007, 41 (2): 113. doi:10.1134/S0031030107020013. 
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 Ivantsov, A.Y.; Malakhovskaya, Y.E. Giant Traces of Vendian Animals (PDF). Doklady Earth Sciences. 2002, 385 (6): 618–622. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2007-07-04). 
  12. ^ Andrey Yu. Ivantsov. Paleontological evidence for the supposed precambrian occurrence of mollusks. Paleontological Journal. December 2010, 40 (12): 1552–1559. doi:10.1134/S0031030110120105. 
  13. ^ Fedonkin, M. A. Andiva ivantsovi gen. et sp. n. and related carapace‐bearing Ediacaran fossils from the Vendian of the Winter Coast, White Sea, Russia. Italian Journal of Zoology. 2002, 69 (2): 175–181. doi:10.1080/11250000209356456. 
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 B. M. Keller and M. A. Fedonkin. New Records of Fossils in the Valdaian Group of the Precambrian on the Syuz’ma River (PDF). Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geol. 1976, 3: 38–44. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2007-09-27) (俄语). 
  15. ^ Narbonne, G. M. New Ediacaran fossils from the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwestern Canada. Journal of Paleontology. May 1994, 63 (3): 411–416. JSTOR 1306192. 
  16. ^ Ivantsov, A. Y. Feeding traces of Proarticulata — the Vendian metazoa. Paleontological Journal. May 2011, 45 (3): 237–248. doi:10.1134/S0031030111030063. 

外部連結[编辑]