矛盾心理

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矛盾心理(Ambivalence)是一种对某一事物同时产生矛盾的反应、信仰或感情的状态[1][2][3][4][5]。换句话说,矛盾是一种对某人或某事的态度,这种态度同时包含了积极和消极两方面的成分。[6]

虽然态度倾向于引导与态度相关的行为,但那些持有矛盾心理的人倾向于在较小程度上引导态度相关的行为。一个人的态度越不确定,他就越容易受到影响,从而使未来的行动更不可预测和/或更不果断[7]。自相矛盾的态度也更容易受到瞬时信息(例如突发情绪)的影响,这会导致更具可塑性的评估。[8]然而,由于矛盾的人更多地考虑与态度相关的信息,他们也往往比不矛盾的人更容易被与态度相关的信息说服。[9]

当一个主体的积极和消极两个方面同时出现在一个人的头脑中时,明显的矛盾心理可能会也可能不会被体验为心理上的不愉快。[10][11]心理上不舒服的矛盾心理,也被称为认知失调,会导致逃避、拖延,或者故意尝试去解决矛盾心理。[12]在需要做出决定的情况下,人们经历了来自矛盾心理的最大的不适。[13]人们不同程度地意识到他们的矛盾心理,因此矛盾心理的影响因人而异。出于这个原因,研究人员考虑了两种形式的矛盾心理,其中只有一种被主观地体验为一种冲突状态。[4]

参见[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Armitage, Christopher J.; Conner, Mark. Attitudinal Ambivalence: A Test of Three Key Hypothesis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 2000, 26 (11): 1421–1432. doi:10.1177/0146167200263009 (英语). 
  2. ^ Webster's New World Collegiate Dictionary, 3rd Edition.
  3. ^ Kaplan, K. J. On the ambivalence-indifference problem in attitude theory and measurement: A suggested modification of the semantic differential technique. Psychological Bulletin. 1972, 77 (5): 361–372. doi:10.1037/h0032590 (英语). 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Conner M; Armitage C.J. Attitudes and Attitude Change: Attitudinal Ambivalence. New York, NY: Psychology Press. 2008: 261–286 (英语). 
  5. ^ van Delft, Merijn. The Causes and Consequences of Attitudinal Ambivalence. 2004 [October 30, 2014]. (原始内容存档于October 31, 2014) (英语). 
  6. ^ Crano, Prislin, William D., Radmila. Attitudes and Attitude Change. Psychology Press. 2011: 262–285 (英语). 
  7. ^ Moss, Dr. Simon. Attitudinal Ambivalence. Psycholopedia. Psych-it.com.au. March 16, 2010 [October 28, 2014]. (原始内容存档于August 29, 2014) (英语). 
  8. ^ Bell, D. W.; Esses, V. M. Ambivalence and response amplification toward native peoples. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 1997, 27 (12): 1063–1084. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1997.tb00287.x (英语). 
  9. ^ Maio, G. R.; Bell, D. C.; Esses, V. M. Ambivalence and persuasion: The processing of messages about immigrant groups. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 1996, 32 (6): 513–536. Bibcode:10.1.1.470.2141. PMID 8979932. doi:10.1006/jesp.1996.0023 (英语). 
  10. ^ Newby-Clark, I. R.; McGregor, I.; Zanna, M. P. Thinking and caring about cognitive inconsistency: When and for whom does attitudinal ambivalence feel uncomfortable?. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2002, 82 (2): 157–166. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.82.2.157 (英语). 
  11. ^ Song, Hyunjin; Ewoldsen, David R. Metacognitive Model of Ambivalence: The Role of Multiple Beliefs and Metacognitions in Creating Attitude Ambivalence. Communication Theory. 2015, 25: 23–45. doi:10.1111/comt.12050 (英语). 
  12. ^ Van Harreveld, F.; van der Pligt, J.; de Liver, Y. The agony of ambivalence and ways to resolve it: Introducing the MAID model. Personality and Social Psychology Review. 2009, 13 (1): 45–61. PMID 19144904. doi:10.1177/1088868308324518 (英语). 
  13. ^ Van Harreveld, F.; Rutjens, B. T.; Rotteveel, M.; Nordgren, L. F.; van der Pligt, J. Ambivalence and decisional conflict as a cause of psychological discomfort: Feeling tense before jumping off the fence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology (Submitted manuscript). 2009, 45: 167–173 [2019-12-27]. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2008.08.015. (原始内容存档于2019-12-27) (英语). 

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