种族灭绝式强奸

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索

种族灭绝式强奸,指在战时针对敌方展开大规模强奸,并以此作为种族灭绝行动的一部分的行为[1]。在孟加拉国解放战争[2][3][4][5]南斯拉夫内战卢旺达大屠杀[3][6]期间,大规模的强奸行为成为战争的重要组成部分,也因此让种族灭绝式强奸这一概念受到国际社会广泛关注。[7]尽管战争时期的性暴力在漫长历史里的无数次冲突中显现出其反复性与周期性,但它通常也只被看作是战争的副产品,而不是军事作战策略的一部分。[8]

印巴分治里针对女性的暴力行为也被引用为种族灭绝式强奸的一起典型案例。[9]

争论[编辑]

一些学者认为防止及惩治灭绝种族罪公约应声明大规模的强奸属于种族灭绝罪的范畴。[10] 其他学者认为,种族灭绝式强奸属于公约在其第二章内为种族灭绝所下之定义。[7][11]凯瑟琳·麦金侬认为,种族灭绝式强奸的受害者是种族全体的代难者,强奸充当了灭族的工具,而施害者的目的是摧毁整个目标种族。[12]

西奥班·费希尔认为,强制怀孕,而非强奸本身才能构成种族灭绝。她说:“轮奸本身‘只能’是强奸,但如果有使其受精怀孕的意图那么就不那么简单了。”[2][13]莉萨·莎拉赫认为公约之定义太为狭隘,因为大规模强奸不应只根据被强奸者是否被迫怀孕来进行界定其是否为种族灭绝。[2]

作为种族灭绝的强奸行为[编辑]

大赦国际认为,战时的强奸行为并不是战争与冲突的副产品,而是一项预先计划与蓄意实施的军事策略。[14] 在二十世纪的最后二十五年里,世界上的主要冲突已由国家间战争转变为群体暴力事件和内战。在这些冲突中,国家行为体和非国家行为体以强奸作为武器来伤害平民的行为越来越频繁。记者和人权组织记录了大量的种族灭绝式的强奸运动。前南斯拉夫、塞拉利昂、卢旺达、利比里亚、苏丹、乌干达境内的各起冲突和刚果民主共和国内战皆有出现。这些大规模屠杀的战略目的有两个。第一点是面向平民灌输恐怖的情绪,使人们放弃财产而逃离。第二点是通过使目标族群蒙羞受辱以削弱其复兴民族重建家园的可能。这两点对非国家行为体具有战略作用,因为将目标种族从土地上移除是实现种族灭绝计划的关键部分。是故,鉴于施害者的目的是摧毁或强制迁离目标种族,并确保他们不会回归,强奸对于包含种族灭绝和种族清洗的运动十分适合。[15]种族灭绝式强奸的目标之一是强制怀孕,由此,侵略者不仅侵略了目标种族的土地,也侵略了他们的血统和家庭。而无法生育的女性则同样被用来实施性侵犯,作为侵略者的泄欲工具。从小女孩到八十岁的老妪都有可能成为受害者。[16]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Totten & Bartrop 2007, pp. 159–160.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Sharlach 2000, pp. 92–93.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Sajjad 2012, p. 225.
  4. ^ Ghadbian 2002, p. 111.
  5. ^ Mookherjee 2012, p. 68.
  6. ^ Sharlach 2000, p. 90.
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Miller 2009, p. 53.
  8. ^ Fisher 1996, pp. 91–133.
  9. ^ R. Brass, Paul. The partition of India and retributive genocide in the Punjab, 1946–47: means, methods, and purposes [1946-47年印巴分治与旁遮普的报复性种族灭绝:途径、方法和目的]. Journal of Genocide Research. 2003, 5: 71–101. doi:10.1080/14623520305657. 
  10. ^ Sharlach 2000, pp. 89–102.
  11. ^ Totten & Bartrop 2007, p. 159.
  12. ^ MacKinnon 2006, pp. 209–233.
  13. ^ Bisaz 2012, pp. 90–91.
  14. ^ Smith-Spark 2012.
  15. ^ Leaning,Bartels & Mowafi 2009, p. 174.
  16. ^ Smith 2013, p. 94.

书目[编辑]

  • Allen, Beverly. Rape Warfare: The Hidden Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia. University of Minnesota Press. 1996. ISBN 978-0816628186. 
  • Bisaz, Corsin. The Concept of Group Rights in International Law: Groups as Contested Right-Holders, Subjects and Legal Persons. Martinus Nijhoff. 2012. ISBN 978-9004228702. 
  • Brownmiller, Susan. Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape. Simon & Schuster. 1975. ISBN 0-449-90820-8. 
  • Card, Claudia. The Paradox of Genocidal Rape Aimed at Enforced Pregnancy. The Southern Journal of Philosophy. 2008, S1 (46): 176–189. doi:10.1111/j.2041-6962.2008.tb00162.x. 
  • De Brouwer, Anne-Marie. Introduction. (编) Anne-Marie De Brouwer, Sandra Ka Hon Chu. The Men Who Killed Me: Rwandan Survivors of Sexual Violence. Douglas & McIntyre. 2010. ISBN 978-1553653103. 
  • Eftekhari, Shiva. Rwanda, Struggling to Survive: Barriers to Justice for Rape Victims in Rwanda. Human Rights Watch. 2004. 
  • Fielding, Leila. Female Génocidaires: What was the Nature and Motivations for Hutu Female. GRIN Verlag. 2012. ISBN 978-3656324409. 
  • Fisher, Siobhán K. Occupation of the Womb: Forced Impregnation as Genocide. Duke Law Journal. 1996, 46 (1). JSTOR 1372967. 
  • Joeden-Forgey, Elisa Von. Gender and Genocide. (编) Donald Bloxham, A. Dirk Moses. The Oxford Handbook of Genocide Studies. Oxford University Press. 2010. ISBN 978-0199232116. 
  • Jones, Adam. Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Routledge. 2006. ISBN 978-0415353847. 
  • Leaning, Jennifer; Bartels, Susan; Mowafi, Hani. Sexual Violence during War and Forced Migration. (编) Susan Forbes Martin, John Tirman. Women, Migration, and Conflict: Breaking a Deadly Cycle. Springer. 2009: 173–199. ISBN 978-9048128242. 
  • Miller, Sarah Clark. Atrocity, Harm, and resistance. (编) Andrea Veltman, Kathryn Norlock. Evil, Political Violence, and Forgiveness: Essays in Honor of Claudia Card. Lexington. 2009: 53–76. ISBN 978-0739136508. 
  • MacKinnon, Catherine A. Genocide Rape Is Different Than War Rape. Center on Law & Globalization. 2006. 
  • Poloni-Staudinger, Lori; Ortbals, Candice D. Rape as a Weapon of War and Genocide. Terrorism and Violent Conflict: Women's Agency, Leadership, and Responses. Springer. 2012. ISBN 978-1461456407. 
  • Rothe, Dawn. State Criminality: The Crime of All Crimes. Lexington. 2009. ISBN 978-0739126721. 
  • Russell-Brown, Sherrie L. Rape as an Act of Genocide. Berkeley Journal of International Law. 2003, 21 (2). 
  • Sajjad, Tazreena. The Post-Genocidal Period and its Impact on Women. (编) Samuel Totten. Plight and Fate of Women During and Following Genocide Reprint. Transaction. 2012: 219–248. ISBN 978-1412847599. 
  • Sharlach, Lisa. Rape as Genocide: Bangladesh, the Former Yugoslavia, and Rwanda. New Political Science. 2000, 1 (22): 89–102. doi:10.1080/713687893. 
  • Smith, Roger W. Genocide and the Politics of Rape. (编) Joyce Apsel, Ernesto Verdeja. Genocide Matters: Ongoing Issues and Emerging Perspectives. Routledge. 2013: 82–105. ISBN 978-0415814966. 
  • Smith-Spark, Laura. How did rape become a weapon of war?. British Broadcasting Corporation. 8 December 2004 [29 December 2013]. 
  • Totten, Samuel; Bartrop, Paul R. Dictionary of Genocide. Greenwood. 2007. ISBN 978-0313329678. 
  • Vetlesen, Arne Johan. Evil and Human Agency: Understanding Collective Evildoing. Cambridge University Press. 2005. ISBN 978-0521673570.