科學種族主義

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科學種族主義(Scientific racism),又称生物种族主义(biological racism)是一种伪科学的信念,即认为存在经验证据支持或证明种族主义(种族歧视)、种族劣根性和种族优越性。[1][2][3][4]在历史上,科学种族主义曾通过科学界获得过一定的可信度,但现在已不被科学界所认同。[2][3]把人类划分为生物学上不同的群体有时被其支持者称为人种主义(racialism)、种族现实主义(race realism)或种族科学(race science)。现代科学界共识驳斥了该观点,认为该观点和现代基因学的研究结果不符。[5]:360

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ "Ostensibly scientific": cf. Theodore M. Porter, Dorothy Ross (eds.) 2003. The Cambridge History of Science: Volume 7, The Modern Social Sciences Cambridge University Press, p. 293 "Race has long played a powerful popular role in explaining social and cultural traits, often in ostensibly scientific terms"; Adam Kuper, Jessica Kuper (eds.), The Social Science Encyclopedia (1996), "Racism", p. 716: "This [sc. scientific] racism entailed the use of 'scientific techniques', to sanction the belief in European and American racial Superiority"; Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Questions to Sociobiology (1998), "Race, theories of", p. 18: "Its exponents [sc. of scientific racism] tended to equate race with species and claimed that it constituted a scientific explanation of human history"; Terry Jay Ellingson, The myth of the noble savage (2001), 147ff. "In scientific racism, the racism was never very scientific; nor, it could at least be argued, was whatever met the qualifications of actual science ever very racist" (p. 151); Paul A. Erickson, Liam D. Murphy, A History of Anthropological Theory (2008), p. 152: "Scientific racism: Improper or incorrect science that actively or passively supports racism".
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Gould, Stephen Jay. The Mismeasure of Man. New York: W W Norton and Co. 1981: 28–29. ISBN 978-0-393-01489-1. Few tragedies can be more extensive than the stunting of life, few injustices deeper than the denial of an opportunity to strive or even to hope, by a limit imposed from without, but falsely identified as lying within. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Kurtz, Paul. Can the Sciences Help Us to Make Wise Ethical Judgments?. Skeptical Inquirer. Sep 2004 [1 December 2007]. (原始内容存档于23 November 2007). There have been abundant illustrations of pseudoscientific theories-monocausal theories of human behavior that were hailed as "scientific"-that have been applied with disastrous results. Examples: ... Many racists today point to IQ to justify a menial role for blacks in society and their opposition to affirmative action. 
  4. ^ Kaldis, Byron (编). Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social Sciences. SAGE Publications: 779. 2013. ISBN 9781452276045. 
  5. ^ Templeton, A. (2016). EVOLUTION AND NOTIONS OF HUMAN RACE. In Losos J. & Lenski R. (Eds.), How Evolution Shapes Our Lives: Essays on Biology and Society (pp. 346-361). Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctv7h0s6j.26. That this view reflects the consensus among American anthropologists is stated in: Wagner, Jennifer K.; Yu, Joon-Ho; Ifekwunigwe, Jayne O.; Harrell, Tanya M.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Royal, Charmaine D. Anthropologists' views on race, ancestry, and genetics. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. February 2017, 162 (2): 318–327. PMC 5299519. PMID 27874171. doi:10.1002/ajpa.23120.  See also: American Association of Physical Anthropologists. AAPA Statement on Race and Racism. American Association of Physical Anthropologists. 27 March 2019 [19 June 2020].