穆罕默德·伊本·阿布多·瓦哈比

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穆罕默德·伊本·阿布多·瓦哈比
محمد بن عبد الوهاب.png
个人资料
出生 1703年
内志乌亚纳英语'Uyayna
逝世 1792年6月22日(时年88/89岁)
宗教信仰 伊斯兰教
宗派 瓦哈比派
法理 罕百里[1]
运动英语Religious movement 瓦哈比派
专业领域 伊斯兰教神学
著名思想伊斯兰教创新英语Bid‘ah認主學方面的观点

穆罕默德·伊本·阿布多·瓦哈比(阿拉伯语:محمد بن عبد الوهاب‎,英语:Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab,1703年-1792年6月22日)是中阿拉伯半岛内志的宗教领袖、神学家,是如今被称作瓦哈比派的伊斯兰宗教创始人、现代伊斯兰原教旨主义、伊斯兰恐怖主义之父。[2][3][4][5][6][7]瓦哈比出身教法学世家,他早年接受过罕百里教法学派的正统教育,而罕百里则是他出身地区最流行的教法学派。[1]尽管瓦哈比接受了传统的逊尼派教育,但他之后却渐渐开始反对当时许多主流的逊尼派宗教仪轨,如朝拜圣人陵墓(中国回族称“拱北”)。瓦哈比认为这类行为无异于发明异端教条甚至是偶像崇拜。虽然他的学说在当时被许多逊尼派学者反对(包括他自己的父亲与兄弟)[1],瓦哈比与穆罕默德·本·沙特共同起草了一份政教协议以帮助沙特建立德拉伊耶酋长国,第一沙特王国[8],从此开启了其家族与沙特王室共享权力之路,延续至今。[9]阿礼·谢赫家族[10]沙特王国内具有领导地位的宗教家族,他们是瓦哈比的后裔,且历史上一直领导着乌理玛并主导着各个神职机构。[11][12]

早年[编辑]

根据普遍被接受的说法,瓦哈比生于1703年[1][13]回历1114年。[14]其出身的部族为内志地区[13][15]乌雅伊纳的巴努塔敏[16][17],根据部族的谱系,他们是易司马仪裔孙阿德南的后人。[18]在瓦哈比崛起前,他的家乡很少有伊斯兰教育的痕迹。[17][19]因此,瓦哈比青年时期并未受到完备的伊斯兰教育。[17]然而[17][20][21][22],该地区涌现了几位显赫的罕百里教法学家。[1]他的祖父苏莱曼·伊本·阿里是内志地区的大学者,父亲阿布德·阿尔-瓦哈卜·伊本·苏莱曼是一名罕百里教法法官。[7]

瓦哈比早年的课业包括背诵古兰经以及根据伊本·库达玛(?-1223年)所列出的大纲学习基础的罕百里学派教法、神学。库达玛是中世纪罕百里学派的代表性人物,由于朝拜拱北并相信圣人能以上帝的恩典施展奇迹这样一种信条已经深入人心并受到教法学家承认,他的著作在内志地区具有很高威望。[23][24][25][26][27][28][29]瓦哈比先是师从自己的父亲。[14]但不久,瓦哈比便开始质疑朝圣行为,他离开内志可能也是为了去其他地区了解朝圣是否也如此流行。

在离开乌雅伊纳后,他去往麦加朝觐。麦加的学者有着与瓦哈比不相容的见解和教导,瓦哈比觉得无法接受。随后,他又去了麦地那,并在那里形成了其后期思想的蓝图。在麦地那,瓦哈比遇到了一名来自内志的罕百里教法学家阿卜杜拉·伊本·易卜拉欣·阿尔-内志迪。此人是新罕百里学派伊本·泰米叶学说的追随者。泰米叶的学说是富有争议的,在数个历史重要时期,他的学说都被逊尼派学者视作异端、歧见。[30][31][32][33]瓦哈比的导师伊本·赛义夫将相对年轻的瓦哈比介绍给了苏菲派纳克什班迪教团穆罕默德·哈亚特·伊本·易卜拉欣·阿尔-辛迪[34][35],并推荐他做辛迪的学生。[36][37][38]瓦哈比与辛迪过从甚密,瓦哈比在后者那里停留了一段时间。[36]辛迪建议瓦哈比不要遵从有关伊斯兰教圣人和圣人拱北的习俗,这些教导与瓦哈比后来的思想类似。[36]

在麦地那由于争议,瓦哈比遭到驱逐。于是,他走出了阿拉伯半岛,并来到了巴士拉[20][39]瓦哈比在巴士拉再次与当地人进行了激烈的辩论,他认为当地人进行偶像崇拜,违反一神教义。当地的权贵感到愤怒并将他驱逐出境,瓦哈比离开巴士拉时徒步行走,几乎丧命。[7]不过据其孙子称,瓦哈比在巴士拉获得了书写其著作《神圣合一之书》的灵感。[7]

离开巴士拉,瓦哈比来到了大马士革。但最终还是因为坚持己见而被迫离开当地。走投无路的瓦哈比只好回到家乡投靠父亲。而他的父亲以及兄弟苏莱曼·伊本·阿布德·阿尔-瓦哈比对他的学说也持反对意见,苏莱曼甚至成为第一个专门著述驳斥瓦哈比的学者。[14]

早期传教[编辑]

回到家乡后,瓦哈比的学说吸引了许多人。其中就包括了乌雅伊纳的统治者乌斯曼·伊本·穆阿迈尔。和穆阿迈尔一起,瓦哈比打算协助他将势力扩大至内志以至更远的地方,作为交换,穆阿迈尔需支持瓦哈比的宗教学说。由此,瓦哈比开始着手实现他的一些宗教改革理念。首先,他填平了先知穆罕默德的同道宰义德·伊本·阿尔-卡塔卜的墓以禁绝朝拜拱北。然后,他下令砍伐本地人视为神树的树木,而他自己则亲手砍倒了最受崇敬的一棵。最后,他将一名犯下通奸罪的女性处以石刑。[40][41]

瓦哈比的这些举动引起了巴尼哈立德部的苏莱曼·伊本·穆哈德·伊本·古艾尔的关注。此人是当时哈薩綠洲盖提夫的酋长,在内志地区位高权重。伊本·古艾尔逼迫穆阿迈尔将瓦哈比赶走或杀死,否则穆阿迈尔将不得再从自己的领地征税。瓦哈比遂遭驱逐。[41][42]

沙特国家的崛起[编辑]

与穆罕默德·本·沙特的盟约[编辑]

瓦哈比被驱逐出乌雅伊纳后,他受德拉伊耶统治者穆罕默德·本·沙特的邀请去往彼地。在德拉伊耶居住了一段时日后,瓦哈比得以与沙特建立起他生涯中第二份与统治者之间的盟约,而这份盟约则更为成功。[43]瓦哈比和沙特认为他们能够联手将阿拉伯半岛上的人们带回他们眼中真正的伊斯兰教信仰。据史料记载,当二人第一次见面时,本·沙特说道:

这片绿洲是你的,不要惧怕你的仇敌。因着上帝之名,即使全内志都接到命令将你驱逐,我们绝不驱逐你。

——马达维·阿尔-拉希德,沙特阿拉伯史: 16

而瓦哈比则回答道:

你是此地之长,且富有智慧。愿你能誓言圣战以绝不信者。你作伊玛目,领导穆民,我则专制教务。

——马达维·阿尔-拉希德,沙特阿拉伯史: 16

公元1744年,两人互誓忠诚,并订下盟约。瓦哈比负责宗教事务,而沙特则负责行政、军事事务。[43]这份盟约使双方互相支持[44][45]并分享权力。[46]这份沙特王室与阿尔·阿什-谢赫家族及其追随者之间的盟约延续了已近三百年[47],为沙特国家的扩张提供了意识形态方面的动力。[48]

德拉伊耶酋长国(第一沙特王国)[编辑]

瓦哈比与沙特的1744年盟约标志着第一沙特王国的崛起,即德拉伊耶酋长国。有了明确的意识形态动力后,沙特首先征服了内志,并将萨拉菲主义传播到当今沙特阿拉伯国境四处[12],同时消除他们认为有多神教嫌疑的行为并传播瓦哈比本人的学说。[12][49]

晚年[编辑]

1766年,穆罕默德·本·沙特遭到暗杀,其子阿卜杜勒阿齐兹·穆罕默德·沙特即位。瓦哈比将其女嫁给了阿卜杜勒阿齐兹;这场联姻强化了瓦哈比与沙特的盟约。他们四处征讨,将不服从瓦哈比派的穆斯林的财产没收,并认为夺取他们的财产是主对他们虔诚的赏赐。由此,瓦哈比变得极为富有,他和沙特穷极奢侈。1773年,瓦哈比和沙特征服了利雅得并计划继续进军伊拉克叙利亚。他一直担任大伊玛目至1792年去世为止。截止其死期,沙特家族已经以利雅得为中心统治大片阿拉伯地区。据史学家伊本·比希尔称,作为大伊玛目,沙特国内所有政务事无巨细都需经过他的同意。临死前,瓦哈比将伊玛目的职位授予了女婿阿卜杜勒阿齐兹。[50]

身后[编辑]

瓦哈比派和沙特政权在瓦哈比本人去世后仍旧推进其扩张计划。1802年,瓦哈比派以一万两千人的兵力攻陷了波斯的卡尔巴拉城,洗劫了伊玛目侯赛因圣陵中的无数财宝并屠杀了四千余人,包括妇女和儿童。[51]1805年,瓦哈比派占领了麦加麦地那并宣布不承认奥斯曼帝国苏丹圣地守护者的头衔。占领区内所有除古兰经圣训集以外的书籍全数遭到焚毁。城中财产也被洗劫一空。[50]奥斯曼帝国因同时需要应付俄罗斯、英国、奥地利以及埃及而无暇抽身。大英帝国则乐于见到瓦哈比派在奥斯曼帝国的后方造成动乱。直到1812年,帝国方才委托埃及的穆罕默德·阿里帕夏讨伐瓦哈比派。阿里帕夏成功地夺回了两圣地和利雅得。1818年,沙特政权首都德拉伊耶陷落,阿里帕夏处死了瓦哈比的两名孙子,酋长阿卜杜拉·伊本·沙特也被押送至君士坦丁堡处决。[50]

家庭[编辑]

根据大英百科全书等学术文献,瓦哈比在巴格达时曾与一富裕的妇女结婚,并在该女子去世后继承了他的财产。[52][53]瓦哈比共有6个儿子;胡赛因、阿卜杜拉、哈桑、阿里以及易卜拉欣,阿卜杜-阿齐兹则早夭。他的孩子们在家附近建立学校并向德拉伊耶和其他地区的学说传授学说。瓦哈比的子孙阿礼·谢赫家族在沙特阿拉伯国内与王室比肩,他们之间分享权力。[54]沙特家族支持阿礼·谢赫们的宗教权威,而阿礼·谢赫家族则支持沙特家族的政治权威[55],因着自身的政治、道德权威性为沙特家族的统治提供合法性。[56]

参考资料[编辑]

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