本页使用了标题或全文手工转换

立陶宛市鎮

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索
Map of the European Union with Lithuania highlighted in green
立陶宛歐洲聯盟中的位置。
Coat of arms of Lithuania
立陶宛政府与政治
系列条目

立陶宛行政區劃英语administrative division of Lithuania可分為三級。「」(apskritis)是該國的第一級行政區劃,共有10個。縣下面又可以分為60個「市鎮」(savivaldybės)。這60個市鎮又可分為500多個「長老區」(seniūnija)。

立陶宛在脫離蘇聯時,共有44區12市[1],政區重劃成為新政府的首要任務之一[2]。1992年通過的《立陶宛憲法》賦予國會政區重劃的權力。立陶宛國會遂頒布了兩道基本法令:1993年的法令規範政府代表,1994年的法令規定領土行政單位及其政區邊界[2]。1995年在縣份下又設置「市鎮」的編制,沿用迄今[2]。2000年又做出些許調整,形成現在60市鎮的狀態[3]

市鎮為立陶宛行政區劃中唯一的自治團體,具有自己的議會[4]。一般市議員四年一任,由比例代表制選舉產生[5]。市長最初是由市議員選舉產生[6],2015年3月1日起改由市民直選簡單多數決產生,任期亦為四年[4][5]

維爾紐斯市是立陶宛人口最多的市鎮,約佔該國五分之一的人口(18.6%)。人口最少的市鎮是內林加,人口不到3,000人。陸地面積最大的市鎮是瓦雷納區,面積達2,216 km2。面積最小的市鎮則為阿利图斯市

市镇类型[编辑]

立陶宛的60个市镇分为三种类型:

  • 43个地区型市镇(立陶宛語rajono savivaldybė)。这些市镇大致跟苏联时期的相对应。在1994年之前它们作为区存在,且现在还通称它们为区。名词“市镇”添加在区之后是为了消除苏联遗留下来的影响(在苏联各地都设有“区”)。
  • 7个城市型市镇(立陶宛語miesto savivaldybė)。这些市镇位于主要或重要城市周围。在日常用语中它们简称为市或市镇(因为在立陶宛语中“市镇”与城市和城市权更相关联)。
  • 10个市镇(立陶宛語savivaldybė)。这些市镇成立于1994年之后,在它们的名称中没有“地区”(rajono)的字样。

職力及功能[编辑]

歐洲聯盟(EU)及北約組織(NATO)等國際組織的參與,是影響立陶宛市鎮職權的最大外部因素。市鎮須提供歐盟委員會一些必要的資訊。而在北約的參與上,市鎮也提供防禦的職能[7]

A map divided into ten sections all filled in with a different colour and further subdivided into subsections

1 – 維爾紐斯市
2 – 考那斯市
3 – 克萊佩達市

4 – 帕內韋日斯市
5 – 希奧利艾市
6 – 阿利圖斯市

7 – 比爾什托納斯
8 – 帕兰加市
9 – 維薩吉納斯
10 – 內林加

市鎮列表[编辑]

市鎮 原文名稱 所屬縣份 行政中心[8] 面積(平方公里)[9] 人口(2015年)[9] 人口密度(2015年)[9]
A coat of arms depicting orange tools on a white background on the top and an orange sun on a dark green background on the bottom
阿克梅內區
Akmenės rajono savivaldybė 希奧利艾縣 新阿克梅內 844 km2 21,332 25.3
A coat of arms depicting a white flower in the middle that has a yellow stamen and green leaves all on a red background
阿利圖斯市
Alytaus miesto savivaldybė 阿利圖斯縣 阿利图斯 40 km2 55,614 1,390.4
A coat of arms depicting three flowers that have red petals, green stalks, and green leaves all sprouting from green earth
阿利圖斯區
Alytaus rajono savivaldybė 阿利圖斯縣 阿利图斯[註 1] 1,403 km2 27,126 19.3
A coat of arms depicting a brown bridge rising up out of a blue body of water into a blue sky with white clouds
阿尼克什奇艾區
Anykščių rajono savivaldybė 烏田納縣 阿尼克什奇艾 1,764 km2 26,393 15.0
A coat of arms depicting a sea creature with sharp teeth, one protruding bottom tooth, and a blowhole spewing water
比爾什托納斯
Birštono savivaldybė 考那斯縣 比爾什托納斯 122 km2 4,371 35.8
A coat of arms depicting a white flag with a black bird on it with a yellow beak and yellow claws all on a yellow background
比爾扎伊區
Biržų rajono savivaldybė 帕內韋日斯縣 比爾扎伊 1,476 km2 25,937 17.6
A coat of arms depicting three golden crowns with five spikes protruding from their tops all on a blue background
德魯斯基寧凱
Druskininkų savivaldybė 阿利圖斯縣 德魯斯基寧凱 453 km2 20,728 45.8
A coat of arms depicting three yellow, diagonal lines zig-zagging from the bottom left to the top right on a grey background
埃萊克特雷奈
Elektrėnų savivaldybė 維爾紐斯縣 埃莱克特雷奈 509 km2 24,164 47.5
A coat of arms depicting three white flowers lined up vertically with four yellow seeds surrounding each all on a blue background
伊格納利納區
Ignalinos rajono savivaldybė 烏田納縣 伊格納利納 1,441 km2 16,806 11.7
A coat of arms depicting a white bird with wings outspread, a red beak, and red feet all on a dark blue background
約納瓦區
Jonavos rajono savivaldybė 考那斯縣 約納瓦 943 km2 43,875 46.5
A coat of arms depicting an angel in full body armour and wings outspread while standing on a green dragon with a twisted tail
約尼什基斯區
Joniškio rajono savivaldybė 希奧利艾縣 約尼什基斯 1,151 km2 23,807 20.7
A coat of arms depicting three grey fleurs-de-lis, two directly across from each other at the top and one on the bottom, all on a red background
尤爾巴爾卡斯區
Jurbarko rajono savivaldybė 陶拉格縣 尤爾巴爾卡斯 1,506 km2 28,162 18.7
A coat of arms depicting four grey horses with red eyes galloping both to the left and to the right all on a black background
凱希亞多里斯區
Kaišiadorių rajono savivaldybė 考那斯縣 凱希亞多里斯 1,087 km2 31,915 29.4
A coat of arms depicting a grey castle on a red background on the left and a blue eye in a yellow triangle on the right
卡爾瓦里亞
Kalvarijos savivaldybė 馬里揚泊列縣 卡爾瓦里亞 440 km2 11,486 26.1
A coat of arms depicting a white bull with an angry expression and a golden cross protruding from its head all on a red background
考那斯市
Kauno miesto savivaldybė 考那斯縣 考那斯 157 km2 301,357 1919.5
A coat of arms depicting a grey bull's head with a golden cross protruding from the top all on a red crest on a blue background
考那斯區
Kauno rajono savivaldybė 考那斯縣 考那斯[註 1] 1,495 km2 88,396 59.1
A coat of arms depicting six yellow stars in a diagonal line running from the bottom left to the top right all on a black background
卡茲盧魯達
Kazlų Rūdos savivaldybė 馬里揚泊列縣 卡茲盧魯達 555 km2 12,494 22.5
A coat of arms depicting a black wing attached to a black tallon holding a white horseshoe attached to three yellow spurs
凱代尼艾區
Kėdainių rajono savivaldybė 考那斯縣 凱代尼艾 1,677 km2 49,939 29.8
A coat of arms depicting a white wheel on a light blue background at the top and three white leaves on a green background at the bottom
凱爾梅區
Kelmės rajono savivaldybė 希奧利艾縣 凱爾梅 1,705 km2 29,559 17.3
A coat of arms depicting a golden castle with three turrets surrounded with four golden stars all on a red background
克萊佩達市
Klaipėdos miesto savivaldybė 克萊佩達縣 克莱佩达 99 km2 156,141 1,577.2
A coat of arms depicting a sword with a gold hilt and a silver blade penetrating a green wreath all on a red background
克萊佩達區
Klaipėdos rajono savivaldybė 克萊佩達縣 加爾格日代 1,340 km2 52,831 39.4
A coat of arms depicting a woman clothed in blue and brown wearing a golden crown and carrying a baby all on a grey background
克雷廷加區
Kretingos rajono savivaldybė 克萊佩達縣 克雷廷加 989 km2 39,758 40.2
A coat of arms depicting a black, six-pointed star on a golden background on the bottom and grey swirls on a blue background on the top
庫皮什基斯區
Kupiškio rajono savivaldybė 帕內韋日斯縣 庫皮什基斯 1,080 km2 18,678 17.3
A coat of arms depicting a golden moose with large antlers and a protruding red tongue hovering over three black keys
拉茲迪亞伊區
Lazdijų rajono savivaldybė 阿利圖斯縣 拉茲迪亞伊 1,306 km2 20,813 15.9
A coat of arms depicting a man in full body armour riding a brown horse that is trampling a black dragon all on a yellow background
馬里揚泊列
Marijampolės savivaldybė 馬里揚泊列縣 馬里揚泊列 755 km2 58,027 76.9
A coat of arms depicting a golden arrow with a zig-zag in the middle of it pulled back on a golden bow all on a blue background
馬熱伊基艾區
Mažeikių rajono savivaldybė 特爾希艾縣 马热伊基艾 1,219 km2 55,441 45.5
A coat of arms depicting a golden key on a red background at the top and three blue birds on a white background at the bottom
莫萊泰區
Molėtų rajono savivaldybė 烏田納縣 莫莱泰 1,367 km2 19,233 14.1
A coat of arms depicting a white "N" on a blue background at the bottom and a series of black and white shapes at the top
內林加
Neringos savivaldybė 克萊佩達縣 尼達 90 km2 2,879 32.0
A coat of arms depicting a grey bird with a golden eye and wings outstretched holding a golden key all on a green background
帕蓋吉艾
Pagėgių savivaldybė 陶拉格縣 帕蓋吉艾 536 km2 8,711 16.3
A coat of arms depicting a yellow windmill on a red crest hovering over a black bridge all on a yellow background
帕克魯奧伊斯區
Pakruojo rajono savivaldybė 希奧利艾縣 帕克魯奧伊斯 1,315 km2 21,555 16.4
A coat of arms depicting a circle for which the boundary is itself made up of beige circles all under a silver crown on a blue background
帕兰加市
Palangos miesto savivaldybė 克萊佩達縣 帕兰加 79 km2 15,379 194.7
A coat of arms depicting a red castle with black double doors, two black windows, and one central tower all standing on black ground
帕內韋日斯市
Panevėžio miesto savivaldybė 帕內韋日斯縣 帕內韋日斯 50 km2 95,202 1,904.0
A coat of arms depicting two grey sheaves of wheat on a blue background at the top and a red plowshare on a grey background at the bottom
帕內韋日斯區
Panevėžio rajono savivaldybė 帕內韋日斯縣 帕內韋日斯[註 1] 2,177 km2 37,173 17.1
A coat of arms depicting the black head of a bull with a golden vine entangled in its black horns and a golden ring protruding from its nose
帕斯瓦利斯區
Pasvalio rajono savivaldybė 帕內韋日斯縣 帕斯瓦利斯 1,289 km2 26,213 20.3
A coat of arms depicting the Eye of Providence with a blue iris encapsulated in a golden triangle surrounded in golden rays all on a blue background
普倫蓋區
Plungės rajono savivaldybė 特爾希艾縣 普倫蓋 1,105 km2 36,052 32.6
A coat of arms depicting a man in full body armour riding a brown horse that is tramplinga green dragon spewing red flames from its mouth
普列奈區
Prienų rajono savivaldybė 考那斯縣 普列奈 1,032 km2 28,181 27.3
A coat of arms depicting a silver horse that is rearing and neighing all on a dark green background bordered by a thin silver line
拉德維利什基斯區
Radviliškio rajono savivaldybė 希奧利艾縣 拉德維利什基斯 1,634 km2 39,043 23.9
A coat of arms depicting a golden lynx with black spots, a red tongue, white teeth, and white claws standing on its back paws on green turf
拉塞尼艾區
Raseinių rajono savivaldybė 考那斯縣 拉塞尼艾 1,573 km2 35,013 22.3
A coat of arms depicting a golden lion holding a silver-bladed sword in its mouth with a golden hilt and standing on green turf all on a blue background
里塔瓦斯
Rietavo savivaldybė 特爾希艾縣 列塔瓦斯 586 km2 8,096 13.8
A coat of arms divided into four sections, the top left and bottom right of which are red, the bottom left of which is blue, and the top right of which is golden
羅基什基斯區
Rokiškio rajono savivaldybė 帕內韋日斯縣 羅基什基斯 1,806 km2 32,191 17.8
A coat of arms depicting a grey castle with three towers topped by crosses with a human head on the front door all on a blue background
斯庫奧達斯區
Skuodo rajono savivaldybė 克萊佩達縣 斯庫奧達斯 911 km2 18,498 20.3
A coat of arms depicting two grey sheaves of wheat on a red background on the left and six black, curved lines on a grey background on the right
沙基艾區
Šakių rajono savivaldybė 馬里揚泊列縣 沙基艾 1,454 km2 30,321 20.9
A coat of arms depicting a golden key overlapping a silver key on a blue background at the top and three golden nuts on a red background on the bottom
沙爾奇寧凱區
Šalčininkų rajono savivaldybė 維爾紐斯縣 沙爾奇寧凱 1,493 km2 32,705 21.9
A coat of arms depicting a black bear with a silver collar on a red background on the left and a blue eye in a grey triangle on the right
希奥利艾市
Šiaulių miesto savivaldybė 希奧利艾縣 希奥利艾 81 km2 104,569 1,291.0
A coat of arms depicting an angry, grey bear with yellow claws and a long, red tongue gripping a yellow axe in its paws all on a blue background
希奧利艾區
Šiaulių rajono savivaldybė 希奧利艾縣 希奥利艾[註 1] 1,807 km2 41,767 23.1
A coat of arms depicting five red leaves in a straight, horizontal row on a grey background at the top and five grey leaves on a red background at the bottom
希拉萊區
Šilalės rajono savivaldybė 陶拉格縣 希拉萊 1,188 km2 24,869 20.9
A coat of arms depicting a grey boat hovering over two partitions of grey water that are themselves hovering over a grey horn all on a green-and-black background
希盧泰區
Šilutės rajono savivaldybė 克萊佩達縣 希盧泰 1,714 km2 41,814 24.4
A coat of arms depicting a silver-bladed sword with a golden hilt standing erect between the silver antlers of a silver moose head
希尔温托斯区
Širvintų rajono savivaldybė 維爾紐斯縣 希爾溫托斯 906 km2 16,333 18.0
A coat of arms depicting a silver fish swimming to the right on the top and another fish swimming to the left on the bottom all on a blue background
什文喬尼斯區
Švenčionių rajono savivaldybė 維爾紐斯縣 什文喬尼斯 1,691 km2 25,719 15.2
A coat of arms depicting a rounded, silver horn hung up by a rounded, silver strap all on a solid red background bordered by a black line
陶拉格區
Tauragės rajono savivaldybė 陶拉格縣 陶拉格 1,179 km2 41,341 35.1
A coat of arms depicting a bishop in brown robes with a brown mitre on his head surrounded by a golden halo looking at another man
特爾希艾區
Telšių rajono savivaldybė 特爾希艾縣 特爾希艾 1,439 km2 43,922 30.5
A coat of arms depicting a man in full body armour holding a white spear in his right hand and a red-and-yellow shield in his left hand
特拉凯区
Trakų rajono savivaldybė 維爾紐斯縣 特拉凱 1,207 km2 33,437 27.7
A coat of arms depicting an open book with a red rose on one page and a red bull on the other all hovering over a red heart with a building in the background
烏克梅爾蓋區
Ukmergės rajono savivaldybė 維爾紐斯縣 烏克梅爾蓋 1,395 km2 36,919 26.5
A coat of arms depicting a golden horseshoe hovering over a white, 8-point star all on a blue background bordered by a thin, black line
烏田納區
Utenos rajono savivaldybė 烏田納縣 乌泰纳 1,230 km2 40,454 32.9
A coat of arms depicting a golden scarab with wings and legs outstretched flying over six purple flowers all on a blue background
瓦雷納區
Varėnos rajono savivaldybė 阿利圖斯縣 瓦雷納 2,216 km2 23,528 10.6
A coat of arms depicting a large, red fleur-de-lis that has a horizontal symmetry axis all on a blue background bordered by a black line
維爾卡維什基斯區
Vilkaviškio rajono savivaldybė 馬里揚泊列縣 維爾卡維什基斯 1,262 km2 39,465 31.3
A coat of arms depicting a white man with a white cape holding a golden staff and giving a ride to a white, golden-haloed child on his shoulder
維爾紐斯市
Vilniaus miesto savivaldybė 維爾紐斯縣 维尔纽斯 400 km2 542,626 1,356.6
A coat of arms depicting a man in full body armour riding a black horse and carrying a white spear with a golden blade in his right hand
維爾紐斯區
Vilniaus rajono savivaldybė 維爾紐斯縣 维尔纽斯[註 1] 2,129 km2 95,620 44.9
A coat of arms depicting a grey bird with a long, twisting neck, a yellow, pointy beak, and long yellow legs all on a dark blue background
維薩吉納斯
Visagino savivaldybė 烏田納縣 維薩吉納斯 58 km2 20,249 349.1
A coat of arms depicting a grey animal with the body of a fish and the head of a deer on a blue background at the top and a sword on the bottom
扎拉賽區
Zarasų rajono savivaldybė 烏田納縣 扎拉賽 1,331 km2 17,035 12.8

參見[编辑]

腳註[编辑]

註釋
  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 这些市镇的行政中心位于本市镇所辖区域之外。
一般文獻
專業文獻
  1. ^ Conference on Local and Regional Authority Co-operation in the Baltic Sea Area: proceedings, Kaunas, Lithuania, 21-23, April 1999. Council of Europe. January 2000: 9 [2011-02-16]. ISBN 978-92-871-4538-3. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Jolanta Vaičiūnienė. The Administrative–Territorial Reform in Lithuania: History and Today (PDF). Council of Europe. 2008-11-14 [2011-02-16]. 
  3. ^ Local Economic and Employment Development (Program); Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Baltic partnerships: integration, growth and local governance in the Baltic Sea Region. OECD Publishing. April 2007: 75 [2011-02-23]. ISBN 978-92-64-02928-6. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Lithuania Introduction. European Committee of The Regions. [2021-06-27]. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Law on elections to municipal councils. The Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania. [2015-07-31]. 
  6. ^ Lithuanian mayors to be directly elected « True Lithuania. www.truelithuania.com. [2021-06-26]. 
  7. ^ Burbulytė-Tsiskarishvili, G., Dvorak,J., Žernytė, A. (2018). Savivaldybių funkcijų ir galių kaita 1994 - 2016 metais. Viešoji politika ir administravimas, t.17, No.3
  8. ^ Municipality administrative centers and coats of arms are given by Statistics Lithuania英语Statistics Lithuania in subpages under the Portrait of the Regions of Lithuania; e.g. Alytus town municipality 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2011-05-26..
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 9.2 Area (land) at the beginning of the year, Population density at the beginning of the year, Resident population at the beginning of the year. Statistics Lithuania英语Statistics Lithuania. [2016-02-04].